Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia) naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.
Paratanaisia bragai é um trematódeo que atinge sua maturidade sexual nos ductos coletores de rins de aves domésticas e silvestres, tendo os moluscos Subulina octona e Leptinaria unilamellata como hospedeiros intermediários. A patologia descrita no rim das aves apresenta uma série de divergências. Dessa forma, o presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar rins de Columba livia, naturalmente infectada, e de Gallus gallus infectados experimentalmente por Paratanaisia bragai. Através das análises, verificaram-se alterações macroscópicas, por microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura, sendo caracterizada significativa dilatação dos túbulos coletores. Essas alterações foram observadas nas aves infectadas naturalmente e experimentalmente. Por outro lado, foi observada infiltração linfocitária nos rins de C. livia, naturalmente infectada, e ocorrência de metaplasia no revestimento epitelial dos túbulos coletores dos rins de G. gallus, experimentalmente infectados.
Free metacercariae of an undetermined species of digenetic (Diplostomidae) were found over in the kidneys of anurans of the species Rhinella fernandezae collected in the in the municipality of Imbé, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. In a sample of 90 anurans, the prevalence of free metacercariae was 3,3, and the mean intensity of infection was 8,7 helminths/host. This is the first record of free metacercariae in anurans from Southern Brazil and from the State of Rio Grande do Sul.
Metacercárias livres de uma espécie não determinada de trematódeo digenético (Diplostomidae) foram encontradas nos rins de anuros da espécie Rhinella fernandezae coletados no Município de Imbé, Litoral Norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em uma amostra de 90 anuros, as metacercárias apresentaram prevalência de 3,3% e intensidade de infecção de 8,7 helmintos/hospedeiro. Este é o primeiro registro de metacercárias livres de diplostomídeos em anuros da região Sul do Brasil e do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.
Nematodes of the genus Dispharynx (Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912) are parasites of several groups of birds which have been primarily studied in birds of economic importance due to the injuries caused in the host proventricle. Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Stiles & Hassall, 1920, was found in two species of Cuculiformes, guira cuckoos, Guira guira Gmelin, 1788 and smooth-billed ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758, in the southern-most State of Brazil. From 2005 to 2008, 120 specimens of G. guira and 120 specimens of C. ani, were collected in Cacequi, São Vicente do Sul and Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The prevalence of D. nasuta in G. guira was 28.3% and in C. ani 26.7%; the average intensity of infection was 8.81 (DP=18.41; Amplitude 1 - 82) helminths/host in G. guira and 5.10 (DP=6.17; Amplitude 1 - 30) in C. ani; the average abundance of infection was 2.28 (DP=10.02) helminths/host in G. guira, and 1.32 (DP=3.82) in C. ani, respectively. Comparative analysis between the species, sex, sexual maturity and seasonality showed that C. ani did not present significant differences with regard to any of the analyzed parameters. Guira guira presented some differences: females had more parasites than males (P=0.039); female birds collected in the winter (P=0.008) and male birds collected in the summer had more parasites (P=0.011); and immature males had more parasites than adult males (P=0.015). The injuries found in the proventricle of the parasitized birds were compatible with adenomatoid hyperplasia and with granulomatosis proventriculitis. This communication expands the number of host species and the geographic distribution of D. nasuta.
Os nematóides do gênero Dispharynx (Railliet, Henry & Sisoff, 1912) parasitam aves de diversas ordens e têm sido estudados, principalmente, em aves de importância econômica devido às lesões que provocam no proventrículo dos hospedeiros. Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Stiles & Hassall, 1920 é registrado em duas espécies de Cuculiformes, anu-branco, Guira guira Gmelin, 1788 e anu-preto, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, 1758, no Sul do Brasil. Entre 2005 e 2008 foram coletados e necropsiados 120 espécimes de G. guira e 120 espécimes de C. ani nos municípios de Cacequi, São Vicente do Sul e Jaguari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A prevalência de D. nasuta foi de 28,3% em G. guira e 26,7%, em C. ani, e a intensidade média de infecção foi de 8,81 (DP=18,41; Amplitude 1 - 82) helmintos/hospedeiro, em G. guira, e de 5,10 (DP=6,17; Amplitude 1 - 30) helmintos/hospedeiro, em C. ani. Já a abundância média de infecção foi de 2,28 (DP=10,02) helminto/hospedeiro, em G. guira, e de 1,32 (DP=3,82) helminto/hospedeiro em C. ani. Análise comparativa entre o sexo, a maturidade sexual e a estação do ano, para as duas espécies de aves, mostrou que em C. ani não ocorreram diferenças significativas com relação a qualquer dos parâmetros analisados. Em G. guira as fêmeas estavam mais parasitadas do que os machos (P=0,039); as fêmeas encontravam-se mais parasitadas no inverno (P=0,008); os machos, no verão (P=0,011); os machos jovens estavam mais parasitados do que os adultos (P=0,015). As lesões encontradas no proventrículo das aves parasitadas confirmaram o diagnóstico de hiperplasia adenomatóide do proventrículo com proventriculite granulomatosa. Esta comunicação amplia o número de espécies hospedeiras e a distribuição geográfica do nematóide D. nasuta.
To follow the larval developmenl of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892) in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821) snails were separated in three classes using the shell diameter: Class A (14.5-10.2 mm), Class B (10.1-6.9 mm) and Class C (6.8-2.6 mm). Only snails belonging to classes A and B acquired the infection. Specimens of E. coelomaticum removed from the pancreatic ducts were exposed to three physiological solutions: Earle, Locke and saline 0.85%, to obtain eggs for the experimental infections, The Locke solution induced the best egg release. The route of migration the intramolluscan development of E. coelomaticum was studied with the aid of histology. The minimal period of intramolluscan developmenl, ending at the expelling of daughter sporocysts, was 107 days for the snails infected in March, and 79 days for the snails infected in November. The Student "t" test and the Chi-square test showed a significant difference (α = 5%) between the two periods, although the mean temperature registered during the experiments did not significantly differed (α = 5%). The elimination of daughter sporocysts occurred through the snail's pneumostome, and always at night. Most sporocysts were eliminated at intervals that varied between one to three days, without regularity. The time of elimination of the daughter sporocysts was different for the two infection period studied: 12 weeks for the snails infected in March, and three weeks for those infected in November. Positive correlation between the number of sporocysts expelled by the snail host and higher temperatures registered in the laboratory was observed. This correlation was more evident in November infection.
Sparrows captured in Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, were examined through necropsy and the helmints found were identified. The prevalence, intensity of infection and the habitat of each helminth species found are showed. An analysis of the helminth fauna using the importance value of the species collected indicated that in the sparrow the dominant species are: Leucochloridium parcum, Tanaisia inopina, Choanotaenia passerina, Dispharynx nasuta and Tetrameres minima; and the co-dominant species are: Echinostoma revolutum, Eumegacetes mediximus and Mediorhynchus papillosus. According to the host specificity were classified as specialist species: L. parcum, T. inopina, C. passerina and T. minima; and as generalist species: E. revolutum, E. medioximus, D. nasuta and M. papillosus. Echinostoma revolutum was found for the first time in P. domesticus. The species E. medioximus , T. minima and D. nasuta were found for the first time in the sparrow in Brazil. The species C. passerina and M. papillosus were found for the first time in Brazil, expanding their distribution to the Neotropical region.