Resumo Objetivo: Descrever e quantificar as principais alterações na tomografia computadorizada do tórax em pacientes adultos oligossintomáticos com doença falciforme e, secundariamente, avaliar o índice de acerto do radiologista quanto ao tipo de hemoglobinopatia. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo prospectivo em que 44 pacientes adultos com doença falciforme foram submetidos a tomografia computadorizada do tórax tanto em inspiração como em expiração. Foram descritos a frequência dos achados tomográficos e os graus de acometimento. Por meio da análise das alterações pulmonares e do padrão morfológico do baço, foi calculado o índice de acerto do radiologista quanto ao tipo de hemoglobinopatia. Resultados: As alterações encontradas nos exames de tomografia computadorizada, em ordem decrescente de frequência, foram: opacidades reticulares (81,8%), padrão de atenuação em mosaico (56,8%), distorção arquitetural (31,8%), cardiomegalia (25%), redução volumétrica lobar (18,2%) e aumento do calibre de ramos periféricos das artérias pulmonares (9,1%). Na maioria dos achados o grau de acometimento foi considerado leve, com até cinco segmentos pulmonares acometidos. O índice de acerto quanto ao tipo de hemoglobinopatia (grupo HbSS versus grupo não HbSS) foi 72,7%. Conclusão: Em pacientes adultos com doença falciforme os principais achados tomográficos refletem alterações fibróticas. Além do mais, a tomografia computadorizada pode ser útil na diferenciação do tipo de hemoglobinopatia.
Abstract Objective: To describe and quantify the main changes seen on computed tomography of the chest in mildly symptomatic adult patients with sickle cell disease, as well as to evaluate the radiologist accuracy in determining the type of hemoglobinopathy. Materials and Methods: A prospective study involving 44 adult patients with sickle cell disease who underwent inspiration and expiration computed tomography of the chest. The frequency of tomography findings and the extent of involvement are reported. We also calculated radiologist accuracy in determining the type of hemoglobinopathy by analyzing the pulmonary alterations and morphology of the spleen. Results: The changes found on computed tomography scans, in descending order of frequency, were as follows: fibrotic opacities (81.8%); mosaic attenuation (56.8%); architectural distortion (31.8%); cardiomegaly (25.0%); lobar volume reduction (18.2%); and increased caliber of peripheral pulmonary arteries (9.1%). For most of the findings, the involvement was considered mild, five or fewer lung segments being affected. The accuracy in determining the type of hemoglobinopathy (HbSS group versus not HbSS group) was 72.7%. Conclusion: In adult patients with sickle cell disease, the main tomography findings reflect fibrotic changes. In addition, computed tomography can be helpful in differentiating among hemoglobinopathies.
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association between clinical, pulmonary, and cardiovascular findings in patients with sickle cell disease and, secondarily, to compare these findings between sickle cell anemia patients and those with other sickle cell diseases. Methods: Fifty-nine adults were included in this cross-sectional study; 47 had sickle cell anemia, and 12 had other sickle cell diseases. All patients underwent pulmonary function tests, chest computed tomography, and echocardiography. Results: Abnormalities on computed tomography, echocardiography, and pulmonary function tests were observed in 93.5%, 75.0%; and 70.2% of patients, respectively. A higher frequency of restrictive abnormalities was observed in patients with a history of acute chest syndrome (85% vs. 21.6%; p-value < 0.0001) and among patients with increased left ventricle size (48.2% vs. 22.2%; p-value = 0.036), and a higher frequency of reduced respiratory muscle strength was observed in patients with a ground-glass pattern (33.3% vs. 4.3%; p-value = 0.016). Moreover, a higher frequency of mosaic attenuation was observed in patients with elevated tricuspid regurgitation velocity (61.1% vs. 24%; p-value = 0.014). Compared to patients with other sickle cell diseases, sickle cell anemia patients had suffered increased frequencies of acute pain episodes, and acute chest syndrome, and exhibited mosaic attenuation on computed tomography, and abnormalities on echocardiography. Conclusion: A significant interrelation between abnormalities of the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems was observed in sickle cell disease patients. Furthermore, the severity of the cardiopulmonary parameters among patients with sickle cell anemia was greater than that of patients with other sickle cell diseases.