Abstract: Dermatofibroma is a proliferation of spindle cells located in the dermis. We used scanning electron microscopy to examine two histologically confirmed lesions and observed preserved collagen bundles in the perilesional area. In the lesional area, the collagen was denser, without formation of bundles. Higher magnification showed collagen with mesh-like appearance similar to stretched tufts of cotton. Very high magnification evidenced the tufts of cotton and spindle cells measuring 2 to 12 microns.
Abstract Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is a rare acquired idiopathic microangiopathy characterized by progressive development of diffuse asymptomatic telangiectasias and histologically by accumulation of collagen type IV around the affected vessels. It is diagnosed by its clinical history, confirmed by light microscopy with collagen-specific immunostaining. We report a case of a patient with extensive acquired telangiectasias on the left arm, clinically resembling unilateral nevoid telangiectasia. Dilated blood vessels with thickened walls were observed in the dermis. Immunohistochemistry with collagen IV antibodies revealed marked collagen deposition around the vessels, confirming the diagnosis. Transmission electron microscopy observed duplicate and triplicate vascular basal membrane associated with deposition of amorphous material around the membranes.
Abstract: Light microscopy of granuloma annulare shows mucin deposition with lympho-histiocytic infiltrate. We describe the ultrastructural three-dimensional aspects of a typical case of granuloma with characteristic histopathological findings. At the ultrastructural level, affected collagen bundles and granular mucin deposition were observed. Round cells corresponding to lymphocytes were identified. Bigger oval cells, corresponding to isolated or palisading histiocytes were also found. The ultrastructural aspects overlap with light microscopy and contribute to its iconographic documentation.
Abstract: Sclerodermus sp. is an aculeate insect (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), measuring 2-4 mm in length. It is a parasitoid and needs termites as hosts to complete its life cycle. It is found in a wide variety of woods and may accidentally sting humans who come near affected wooden objects. A 50-year-old woman presented two episodes of intense pruritic lesions. Clinical diagnosis of insect bite was doubtful since there were no pets at home, lesions had not started during summer and the patient denied rural activities. During a night episode of itching, the patient examined her bed and found 8 insects likely to be responsible for the bites. Scanning electron microscopy revealed typical features of a female of the genus (wingless and with multiple stingers at the lower end of the abdomen).
Abstract: We report the ultrastructural findings in a case of a 72-year-old black woman with confluent yellowish papules in the cervical region. She had no comorbidities. Ophthalmological examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram were normal. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the affected skin showed strong alterations in the mid-dermis with irregular clumps of eosinophilic material and loss of the normal parallel arrangement of collagen bundles. Orcein staining revealed that the elastic fibers lost their normal linear configuration, showing clump fragmentation, sometimes forming square structures. Transmission electron microscopy showed aberrant elastic fibers with an irregular outline and heterogenic inner structures. We also observed small elastic fibers. Collagen fibers showed a normal structure with irregular distribution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed important disorganization of collagen fibers and small stone-like deposits measuring around 5 µm associated with bigger structures ranging from 10-16 µm. Higher magnification revealed that these small stone-like structures were sometimes polyhedral-shaped or squared.
Abstract Giant axonal neuropathy is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease. The condition is characterized by neurons with abnormally large axons due to intracellular filament accumulation. The swollen axons affect both the peripheral and central nervous system. A 6-year old female patient had been referred to a geneticist reporting problems with walking and hypotonia. At the age of 10, she became wheelchair dependent. Scanning electron microscopy of a curly hair classified it as pili canaliculi. GAN gene sequencing demonstrated mutation c.1456G>A (p.GLU486LYS). At the age of 12, the patient died due to respiratory complications. Dermatologists should be aware of this entity since hair changes are considered suggestive of GAN.
Abstract: Background: Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous follicle disorder affecting over 85% of adolescents to some degree. It frequently causes psychological distress that may persist into adulthood due to scarring. Little information about post-acne scarring epidemiology is available. Objectives: To describe prevalence, distribution patterns and associated factors of acne scarring in young males, drawing on a representative population sample from a southern Brazilian city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken during presentation for military service, which is compulsory for all 18-year-old males. A questionnaire was applied, covering topics like diet, smoking habits, ethnicity, family structure, socio-economic level, as well as specific questions about active acne and resulting scars. Dermatologists conducted the clinical examination. Results: A total of 2,201 male adolescents were interviewed and examined. The overall prevalence of acne scarring was 22%. The malar region was the most frequently involved, present in 80% of affected individuals, followed by the frontal region (31.5%), back (17%), anterior chest (8.2%) and mentonian region (6.4%). Correlation between the intensity of clinical acne and the presence of scars was found, but no association was observed with educational level, smoking, ethnicity, obesity or socio-economic status. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of acne scars among this population. This is the first study to ascertain a correlation between acne scarring and factors such as socio-economic status and educational level. The direct relation between acne severity and scarring indicates that prompt and effective treatment is the best way to reduce scarring.
AbstractSuperficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis.
AbstractSelf-healing collodion baby is a well-established subtype of this condition. We examined a male newborn, who was covered by a collodion membrane. The shed membrane was examined with scanning electron microscopy. The outer surface showed a very compact keratin without the normal elimination of corneocytes. The lateral view of the specimen revealed a very thick, horny layer. The inner surface showed the structure of lower corneocytes with polygonal contour. With higher magnifications villous projections were seen in the cell membrane.
The three-dimensional findings of the surface and from a cross section from a case of disseminated superficial porokeratois using scanning electron microscopy are reported. On the surface of the skin, irregular keratin with a serpiginous distribution was seen. A gross aspect of keratin in the hyperkeratotic wall was also observed and compared to the normal area, in which the release of corneocytes seemed normal. The cross-sectional imaging easily identified the cornoid lamella, with compact keratin surrounded by normal stratum corneum.
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris has high prevalence, disturbing quality of life during adolescence. OBJECTIVES: To measure dissastifaction and acne in 18-year-old male individuals and its associated factors. METHODS: A questionnaire was applied by trained interviewers to all boys during selection for the military service. Dissatisfaction and acne was evaluated using a self-administered face scale. Facial, prestrernal and dorsal acne were evaluated separately. RESULTS: A total of 2,200 adolescents, aged 18 years, were interviewed. Among these, 1,678 had acne on the face and 974 (54.05%) showed some degree of dissatisfaction. Regarding the impact of acne located on the chest, 326 out of 686 adolescents (47.52%) reported dissatisfaction. For acne located on the back, 568 out of 1,103 affected individuals (51.50%) showed dissatisfaction. Facial / dorsal acne and dissatisfaction were statistically associated with lower income, lower education levels and with non-whites. Presternal acne and dissatisfaction were statistically asssociated with lower income and lower education levels. CONCLUSION: This population-based study found a high prevalence of acne on the face, back and chest, with high rates of dissatisfaction.
The association of microphthalmia and linear skin defects was named microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) or MIDAS syndrome (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea), an X-chromosomal disorder manifesting mainly in females. We examined a female newborn with facial linear skin defects following the Blaschko lines. Computer tomography and ophthalmological examination confirmed bilateral microphthalmia. An interstitial microdeletion at Xp22.2, encompassing the entire HCCS gene, was identified. Dermatoscopic examination showed erythematous linear areas with telangectasias and absence of sebaceous glands, which appear as brilliant white dots. Vellus hairs were also absent in the red areas. Dermatoscopy could help to establish the diagnosis of MLS/MIDAS syndrome by confirming the aplastic nature of the lesions.
In dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa the genetic defect of anchoring fibrils leads to cleavage beneath the basement membrane, with its consequent loss. We performed scanning electron microscopy of an inverted blister roof of a case of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, confirmed by immunomapping and gene sequencing. With a magnification of 2000 times a net attached to the blister roof could be easily identified. This net was composed of intertwined flat fibers. With higher magnifications, different fiber sizes could be observed, some thin fibers measuring around 80 nm and thicker ones measuring between 200 and 300 nm.
Na epidermólise bolhosa distrófica, o defeito genético das fibrilas ancorantes leva à clivagem abaixo da membrana basal, com sua consequente perda. Realizamos microscopia eletrônica de varredura do teto invertido de uma bolha de um caso de epidermólise bolhosa distrófica, cujo diagnóstico foi confirmado com imunomapeamento e com sequenciamento gênico. Com uma ampliação de 2.000 vezes, pôde ser facilmente identificada uma rede ligada ao teto da bolha. Essa rede era composta por fibras achatadas e entrelaçadas. Com grandes aumentos, fibras de diferentes tamanhos puderam ser observadas: algumas finas, medindo cerca de 80 nm, e outras mais largas, medindo entre 200 nm e 300 nm.
We performed scanning electron microscopy of an inverted blister roof in a case of pemphigus foliaceus. The loss of intercellular adherence could be easily seen with low magnification. The acantholytic keratinocytes displayed an irregular and sometimes polygonal contour. Round cells, typically seen in light microscopy, were also observed. The examination of a blister roof allows ultrastructural documentation of the acantholytic changes.
Realizamos microscopia eletrônica de varredura do teto invertido de uma bolha de um caso de pênfigo foliáceo. Com pequeno aumento, a perda da adesão intercelular pôde ser vista claramente. Os queratinócitos acantolíticos demostraram um contorno irregular, algumas vezes poligonal. Células arredondadas, como vistas tipicamente na microscopia óptica, também foram observadas. O exame de um teto de bolha permite uma documentação ultraestrutural das alterações acantolíticas.