INTRODUCTION: The characteristics of Group B Streptococcal (GBS) early onset (EOD) and late onset (LOD) neonatal infections in Italy were analyzed. Two periods were considered, a first 3-years period (2007-2010), when notification of GBS infections was enforced under the auspices of the Italian Ministry of Health, and a second 1 year period (2012) when reporting on neonatal GBS disease continued on voluntary basis. METHODS: A standardized form was used to collect data on cases of neonatal GBS disease. They included both maternal and neonatal data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The two surveys underlined that preterm deliveries, precipitous labor and negatively GBS screened mothers are common causes of EOD occurrence, possibly explained by inadequate, or lack of, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Nevertheless, measures for reducing prevention failures and EOD incidence by an higher adherence to prevention strategies, as the Centre for Disease Control recommendations, are still possible and should be encouraged.