Abstract Cadmium, present in the environment, accumulates in different organs of animals and humans, and has deleterious effects on the kidney. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the methanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus in comparison with silymarin on renal function in cadmium-intoxicated rats for five days. Rats intraperitoneally injected with cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg). These rats were treated with either P. ostreatus extract (200 mg/kg) or silymarin to investigate the protective effects of the extract. Cadmium treatment induced significant histopathological impairments and increased cadmium levels, DNA fragmentation, and renal oxidative stress. However, treatment with P. ostreatus extract or silymarin improved the pathology, reduced the level of cadmium in renal tissue, and restored DNA fragmentation. In addition, a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels, and a significant increase in the levels of glutathione and catalase activity were observed. Thus, protective effects of P. ostreatus extract to its components. Chromatographic analysis of the P. ostreatus confirmed the presence of five phenolics (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, propyl gallate, and cinnamic acid) that exhibit strong antioxidant properties as free radical scavengers. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that treatment with P. ostreatus extract protects against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats.
Abstract Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria and infection affecting most domestic animal species. The aim of this research was to comprehend the impact of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata in mouse jejunum, and how they work as antioxidants and anti-apoptotic agents against eimeriosis. The numbers of meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts of E. papillata reduced after the infected mice were treated with the SeNPs. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and other oxidative stress-related molecules, such as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assayed. E. papillata was able to change the redox status of the jejunal cells; this was confirmed by the elevation of the MDA and NO levels, and the decrease of the GSH levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. SeNP treatment significantly reversed this disturbance of the redox status. The expression levels of the apoptotic markers Bax and caspase-3 in the jejunal samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The SeNPs decreased the Bax and caspase-3 expression after being administered to the E. papillata-infected mice. Collectively, the SeNPs demonstrated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities against murine eimeriosis.
Abstract Eimeriosis is a global poultry health problem. In the current study, we investigated the role of Salvadora persica leaf extracts (SE) against murine eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata. The infection induced an oocyst output of 6242 ± 731 oocysts/g feces. After treatment with 300 mg⁄kg SE, the oocysts expelled in feces decreased by approximately 3-fold. In addition, the total number of E. papillata in the parasitic stage decreased in the jejunum of mice after treatment with SE. In addition, SE significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells by approximately 2-fold in the infected jejunum. SE ameliorated the changes in glutathione, malondialdehyde, and catalase due to E. papillata infection. Finally, SE regulated the cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the apoptotic genes, B-cell lymphoma-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. SE protects the jejunum from E. papillata induced injury and may have potential therapeutic value as a food additive during eimeriosis.
Resumo A eimeriose é um problema global de saúde avícola. No presente estudo, investigou-se o papel dos extratos de folhas de Salvadora persica (SE) contra a eimeriose murina induzida por Eimeria papillata. A infecção induziu uma produção de oocistos de 6242 ± 731 oocistos/g de fezes. Após o tratamento com 300 mg⁄kg SE, os oocistos eliminados nas fezes diminuíram em aproximadamente 3 vezes. Além disso, o número total de E. papillata no estágio parasitário diminuiu nos jejunos de camundongos após o tratamento com SE. Da mesma forma, o SE reduziu significativamente o número de células apoptóticas em aproximadamente 2 vezes no jejuno infectado. O estudo mostrou que o SE melhorou as alterações na glutationa, malonaldeído e catalase devido à infecção por E. papillata. Finalmente, o SE regulou os genes das citocinas, interleucina (IL) -1β, IL-6, interferon-γ e fator de necrose tumoral α, e os genes apoptóticos, linfoma-2, Bax e Caspase-3. Assim, o SE protegeu os jejunos das lesões induzidas por E. papillata e pode ter potencial valor terapêutico como aditivo alimentar durante a eimeriose.
Abstract Forty specimens of the Narrowstripe cardinal fish Apogon exostigma were examined for gastrointestinal helminthes, and 62.5% were infected with a new trypanorhynchid larval cestode parasite. The morphology of its larval stage was studied based on light and scanning electron microscopy. The data revealed plerocercoid larvae characterized by a pyriform body lined with prominent microtriches; the acraspedote scolex had four overlapping bothridia; four tentacles protruded through the pars bothridialis; the armature of the tentacles was homeocanthous, homeomorphous, and consisted of falcate compact rose-thorn-shaped tentacular hooks; four oval-shaped bulbs in pars bulbosa; and short appendix at terminal end of the body. Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA sequences verified the taxonomy of this parasite and supported its morphology. We discovered that there was a close identity (up to 87%) with alternative species obtained for comparison from GenBank. The data also showed that there were high blast scores and low divergence values between this parasite and other Tentaculariidae species. The phyletic analysis showed that parasite sequences in conjunction with existing data places this trypanorhynchid species among the Tentaculariidae. This species is deeply embedded within genus Nybelinia with close relationships to Nybelinia queenslandensis as a putative sister taxon.
Resumo Quarenta espécimes do peixe cardinal Apogon exostigma da Narrowstripe foram examinados para identificar helmintos gastrointestinais, destes 62,5% foram infectados com um novo parasito larval cestóide tripanorrinquídeo. A morfologia de seu estágio larval foi estudada na microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os dados revelaram larvas plerocercoides caracterizadas por uma forma piriforme com um corpo revestido por microtrícinos proeminentes; o escolex acraspedótico tinha quatro sobreposições; quatro tentáculos se projetavam através da pars botridialis; a armadura dos tentáculos era homeocante, homeomorfa e consistia de ganchos tentaculares em forma de espinhos, em forma de falcão; quatro bulbos ovais em pars bulbosa; e apêndice curto na extremidade terminal do corpo. A análise molecular das sequências de RNAr 18S verificou a taxonomia desse parasita e apoiou sua morfologia. Descobrimos que havia uma identidade próxima (até 87%) com espécies alternativas obtidas para comparação do GenBank. Os dados também mostraram que houve altos escores de brusone e baixos valores de divergência entre este parasita e outras espécies de Tentaculariidae. A análise filética mostrou que as sequências de parasitas em conjunto com os dados existentes colocam esta espécie de tripanorimidídeo entre os Tentaculariidae. Esta espécie está profundamente enraizada no gênero Nybelinia, tendo relações próximas com Nybelinia queenslandensis como um putativo táxon irmão.