Abstract Zinc deficiency is a growing issue in developing countries. Moreover, it is a well-known fact that the bakery products have very low zinc content and the further loss of zinc occurs during milling of wheat and under baking of end products, which makes it hard to produce nutritional bakery products. For this purpose, zinc sulfate has been incorporated in wheat flour at 0, 32.5, 65, and 97.5 mg/100 g to prepare cookies and determine their physicochemical and nutritional properties as well as stability under controlled storage conditions, i.e. temperature (23-25 °C) and relative humidity (45-55%). The findings exhibited that the cookies-percentage of fat and protein decreased after the addition of zinc sulfate. The fiber content of cookies was non-significantly changed, while the moisture content increased. Moreover, the diameter of cookies significantly increased from 45.65 ± 1.46 cm to 45.84 ± 1.34 cm. The thickness and spread factor of cookies were also effects ranged from 1.49 to 1.54 cm and 30.63 ± 2.98 to 29.76 ± 1.64 respectively. The results revealed that zinc sulfate was stable up to 90 days and under normal baking conditions. Based on the sensorial attributes, it was unveiled that the nutritional cookies were prepared by using 65 mg zinc sulfate with (AARI-2011) wheat flour.
Abstract This paper presents the first comprehensive report on traditional uses of medicinal shrubs of Rawalakot city, district Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Ethobotanical data obtained from 120 informants were analyzed by relative frequency citation, use value, family use value, informant consensus factor, fidelity level and Jaccard index. In total, 41 shrubs belonging to 24 families and 34 genera were documented. Rosaceae was reported the most dominant family in the area (six species) and Berberidaceae showed maximum family use value (0.68). Leaves (35%) and fruits (33%) were the most commonly used plant parts and most of the medicines were prepared in the form of decoction. The high informant consensus factor value (0.94) was recorded for diabetic disease category. Medicinal plants with high fidelity level values (100% each) were Berberis lycium, Cydonia oblanga, Ricinus communis, Ziziphus jujuba and Nerium oleander. Berberis lycium was the most significant shrub in the area with highest use value (0.68). Relative frequency citation value was maximum for Rubus ellipticus (0.30), Nerium oleander and Indigofera heterantha (0.10 each). Percentage of similar plant uses ranged from 21.05 to 0.62% and dissimilarity percentage ranged from 32.50 to 0.66%. Out of the 41 shrub species, six were reported with new therapeutic uses and may represent new bioresources. These were Debregeasia salicifolia (diabetes), Desmodium elegans (anti-cancerous), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (jaundice), Hypericum oblongifolium (arthritis), Sarcococca saligna (tuberculosis), Rubus niveus (chronic cough) and Otostegia limbata (renal disorders). We suggest that species reported with high use value should be involved in cultivation and agricultural practices for their sustainable use and those reported with new therapeutic uses should be employed in further biotechnological, pharmacological and clinical studies in order to validate their traditional uses.
Abstract The aims of this study were to diagnose coenurosis by means of computerized tomography (CT) scan imaging and molecular characterization of the CO1 gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sheep and calves were necropsied, and CT scans on the cephalic region were performed on the animals. Sections of brain tissue infected with parasites were then stained with hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. Material collected from brain cysts was fixed in 70% ethanol. PCR amplification was carried out using the CO1 mitochondrial gene. A total of 60 calves and 80 sheep were examined clinically and, of these, 15 calves and 38 sheep showed signs of depression, with counterclockwise circling movements and altered head carriage. Four sheep and one calf were necropsied, and C. cerebralis cysts were detected in all of them. A hypodense cyst was monitored in the right cerebellar hemisphere on a CT scan on one sheep. A cyst was found in the left frontal lobe on a CT scan on one calf. Microscopically, C. cerebralis cysts were surrounded by a fibrous or epithelial wall that presented necrosis on cerebral sections of both the sheep and the cattle. The CO1-PCR assay yielded a 446 bp band, which was sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed: the results confirmed the presence of T. multiceps. This study reports the first use of CT imaging on naturally infected calves and sheep for diagnosing coenurosis.
Resumo Os objetivos deste estudo foram diagnosticar cenurose por tomografia computadorizada (CT) por imagem de digitalização e caracterização molecular do gene CO1, usando a Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). Ovelhas e bezerros foram necropsiados, e uma tomografia computadorizada da região cefálica foi realizada nos animais. Em seguida, cortes microscópicos de cérebro infectado com parasitas foram corados com hematoxilina e eosina e posterior avaliação ao microscópio de luz. Em seguida, o material recolhido de cada cisto cerebral foi fixado em etanol a 70%. A amplificação pela PCR foi realizada utilizando-se o gene mitocondrial CO1. Um total de 60 bezerros e 80 ovelhas foram clinicamente examinados e, desses, 15 bezerros e 38 ovelhas apresentaram sinais de depressão, com movimentos circulares em sentido anti-horário, e desvio da cabeça. Quatro carneiros e uma vitela foram necropsiados, e cistos de C. cerebralis foram detectados nos animais. Um cisto hipodenso foi monitorado no hemisfério cerebelar direito por imagem do CT de um carneiro. O cisto foi encontrado no lobo frontal esquerdo por imagem do CT de um bezerro. Microscopicamente, cistos de C. cerebralis foram envolvidos por uma parede fibrosa ou epitelial, apresentando necrose em ambos os cortes cerebrais de ovinos e de bovinos. O ensaio CO1-PCR produziu uma banda de 446 pb, sequenciado e submetido à filogenia, confirmou ser T. multiceps. Este estudo relata a primeira utilização de imagens de CT em bezerros e ovelhas naturalmente infectados para o diagnóstico de coenurosis.
ABSTRACT Magnetotactic bacteria are mostly microaerophilic found at the interface between oxic-anoxic zones. We report a magnetotactic bacterial strain isolated from an oil refinery sludge sample that grows aerobically in simple chemical growth medium, 9K. They open a new window of isolation of magnetic nanoparticles through an easy natural living system.
ABSTRACT The anticancer potential of aqueous extracts of tropical plants Ficus deltoidea and Labisia pumila were tested on human prostate carcinoma (DU145) cells. The effects of these extracts on the cells were observed through several tests such as cytotoxicity MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion assay (for cell viability), fluorescence and morphological observations. Both of the plant extracts had a growth repression effect on the cells with different concentrations. The best concentration (1x10-3 μg/mL) was chosen by determining their cytotoxic effects on human prostate cancer as well as fibroblast (normal) cells. The F. deltoidea extract showed more potency and killed the cells faster than L. pumila. Morphologically both extracts affected the cells in a similar way, i.e. the cells became irregular shaped, detached themselves and kept floating in the medium.