Abstract: We report the ultrastructural findings in a case of a 72-year-old black woman with confluent yellowish papules in the cervical region. She had no comorbidities. Ophthalmological examination, electrocardiogram, and echocardiogram were normal. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the affected skin showed strong alterations in the mid-dermis with irregular clumps of eosinophilic material and loss of the normal parallel arrangement of collagen bundles. Orcein staining revealed that the elastic fibers lost their normal linear configuration, showing clump fragmentation, sometimes forming square structures. Transmission electron microscopy showed aberrant elastic fibers with an irregular outline and heterogenic inner structures. We also observed small elastic fibers. Collagen fibers showed a normal structure with irregular distribution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed important disorganization of collagen fibers and small stone-like deposits measuring around 5 µm associated with bigger structures ranging from 10-16 µm. Higher magnification revealed that these small stone-like structures were sometimes polyhedral-shaped or squared.
ABSTRACT The microscopic polyangiitis is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that affects arterioles, capillaries and venules, but can also reach small and medium-sized arteries. It is considered a rare disease, idiopathic in nature but clearly autoimmune. Several ocular and systemic abnormalities are associated with retinal arterial occlusions. Among the collagen vascular diseases, the literature cited as possible causes of retinal artery obstruction lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, giant cell arteritis, Wegener’s granulomatosis and lymphoid Liebow. Until now, there were no reports in the literature of the association of cases of arterial occlusion retinana associated with PAM. The authors report a case of a 53 years old patient diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis who presented with important renal artery occlusion and associated unilateral central retinal artery occlusion. An extended systemic evaluation of patients presenting with central retinal artery occlusion should include research of PAM through analysis op p-ANCA.
RESUMO A poliangeíte microscópica é uma vasculite necrotizante sistêmica que acomete arteríolas, capilares e vênulas, mas também pode atingir pequenas e médias artérias. É considerada uma doença rara, idiopática e autoimune. Diversas anormalidades oculares e sistêmicas estão associadas às oclusões arteriais retinianas. Dentre as doenças vasculares do colágeno, a literatura cita como possíveis causas de obstrução das artérias retinianas o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, a poliarterite nodosa, a arterite de células gigantes, a granulomatose de Wegener e a granulomatose linfóide de Liebow. Até o presente momento, não se encontrou na literatura relatos da associação de casos de oclusão arterial retinana associados à PAM. Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente com poliangeíte microscópica que apresentou comprometimento renal importante e oclusão da artéria central da retina unilateral. Atenta-se para a inclusão de pesquisa da PAM, através do p-ANCA, na avaliação de possível origem sistêmica em pacientes acometidos por oclusão arterial retiniana.
The three-dimensional findings of the surface and from a cross section from a case of disseminated superficial porokeratois using scanning electron microscopy are reported. On the surface of the skin, irregular keratin with a serpiginous distribution was seen. A gross aspect of keratin in the hyperkeratotic wall was also observed and compared to the normal area, in which the release of corneocytes seemed normal. The cross-sectional imaging easily identified the cornoid lamella, with compact keratin surrounded by normal stratum corneum.
The association of microphthalmia and linear skin defects was named microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome (MLS) or MIDAS syndrome (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea), an X-chromosomal disorder manifesting mainly in females. We examined a female newborn with facial linear skin defects following the Blaschko lines. Computer tomography and ophthalmological examination confirmed bilateral microphthalmia. An interstitial microdeletion at Xp22.2, encompassing the entire HCCS gene, was identified. Dermatoscopic examination showed erythematous linear areas with telangectasias and absence of sebaceous glands, which appear as brilliant white dots. Vellus hairs were also absent in the red areas. Dermatoscopy could help to establish the diagnosis of MLS/MIDAS syndrome by confirming the aplastic nature of the lesions.
Congenital hypotrichosis and Stargardt macular dystrophy are rare autosomal recessive disorder of unk nown etiology respectively characterized by hair loss, macular degeneration and severe progressive vision reduc tion. There are few reports in the literature with this association. Studies show that the defective gene is on the chro mosome I6q22.1 and involve cadherin molecule in the pathogenesis. Early recognition of these disorders often starts with hair changes and should alert the dermatologist for an eye examination thereby avoiding more severe ocular defect.
A hipotricose congênita e a distrofia macular de Stargardt são desordens autossômicas recessivas raras de etiologias desconhecidas, caracterizadas respectivamente pela perda de cabelos, degeneração macular e redução pro gressiva e grave da visão de forma precoce. Encontram-se pouquíssimos relatos na literatura com a associação de ambas. Há estudos que demonstram que o gene defeituoso dessas doenças encontra-se no cromossomo I6q22.1 e implicam a participação da molécula caderina na patogênese das mesmas. O reconhecimento precoce dessas desor dens muitas vezes inicia por alterações capilares e deve alertar o dermatologista para uma análise oftalmológica para como forma de se evitar alterações oculares mais graves.