Abstract The pollen micro-morphology of family Solanaceae from the different phytogeographical region of Pakistan has been assessed. In this study, thirteen species belonging to ten genera of Solanaceae have been studied using light and scanning electron microscopy for both qualitative and quantitative features. Solanaceae is a eurypalynous family and a significant variation was observed in pollen size, shape, polarity and exine sculpturing. Examined plant species includes, Brugmansia suaveolens, Capsicum annuum, Cestrum parqui, Datura innoxia, Solanum lycopersicum, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, Petunia hybrida, Physalis minima, Solanum americanum, Solanum erianthum, Solanum melongena, Solanum surattense and Withania somnifera. The prominent pollen type is tricolporate and shed as a monad. High pollen fertility reflects that observed taxa are well-known in the study area. Based on the observed pollen traits a taxonomic key was developed for the accurate and quick identification of species. Principal Component Analysis was performed that shows some morphological features are the main characters in the identification. Cluster Analysis was performed that separate the plant species in a cluster. The findings highlight the importance of Palyno-morphological features in the characterization and identification of Solanaceous taxa. It is concluded that both LM and SEM significantly play a key role in correct identification of taxa studied.
Abstract Natural products from plants are pulling in more interest in exploration due to their therapeutic properties like, mainly because of the drug-resistance in microbes against synthetic drugs. Thus, the present study was designed to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant actions of some Agro-waste (garlic, ginger, onion, potato) peel extracts. Ginger peel extracts exhibited the highest FRAP (0.273±0.044 mm Fe2+ Eq/g dry weight) while garlic peel extracts exhibited the highest TAC (0.47±0.0452 mm AAE/g dry weight) values among all selections. The antimicrobial activity of the peels was evaluated against different pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains i.e.; Escherichia coli, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Colletotrichum falcatum, Fusarium moniliforme, and Rhizoctonia solani. Among all extracts, ginger peel extracts exhibited maximum inhibition against all bacterial strains, while onion peel extracts exhibited zero inhibition against any bacterial strains. All extracts exhibited maximum inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus except onion peel extracts. Positive inhibition against all fungal strains was observed for all samples, with maximum inhibition against Colletotrichum falcatum. The outcomes of the study, therefore reveal that Agro-wastes have a powerful antimicrobial and antioxidant potency and thus can be used for many medicinal purposes, which will likewise be helpful in waste management and environmental safety.
Abstract Background: Palyno-morphological and foliar epidermal studies plays a very important role in the correct identification and differentiation of two weeds of genus convolvulus. Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the medicinal uses of the two important weeds for correct systematic identification. Methods: Both the qualitative and quantitative features were measured with the help of Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: Variations were observed in both the weeds, i.e Convolvulus arvensis (bindweeds) and Convolvulus prostatus (soft bindweed) in epidermal cells, stomatal size and number, guard cell shape and size, subsidiary cell and diversity of trichomes. Paracytic type of stomata was found in both the weed species. Stomata shape in Convolvulus arvensis is elliptical and oval to oval oblong in Convolvulus prostratus. Weed species have a difference in size, shape, polarity and exine ornamentation. Tricolporate pollen type was observed. The shape of pollen grains is Prolate, Perforate. By using these Palyno-morphological characteristics a taxonomic key is prepared for the identification of these weed plants. Conclusions: High fertility rate i.e Convolvulus arvensis 96% and in Convolvulus prostatus is 90 % shows the weed species are well adapted in the area. Systematics studies of the weed play a very important role not only incorrect identification but also differentiation with other weed plants and subsequently for the conservation purposes.