RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficácia dos modelos de Programação por Metas como ferramenta de regressão não linear, com os métodos de ajustes não lineares clássicos. Aplicou-se os modelos a dados experimentais de inativação de Salmonella spp. em carne móıda suína. A investigação da eficiência dos métodos foi realizada pelo cálculo do erro absoluto.
ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to compare the effectiveness of Goal Programming models, as a nonlinear regression tool, with the classical nonlinear fitting methods. The models were applied to experimental data of inactivation Salmonella spp. in ground pork. The investigation of the methods’ efficiency was made by calculation of the maximum and absolute errors.
RESUMO COVID-19 é uma doença altamente contagiosa provocada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Em 2020, devido ao surto, foi caracterizada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) como pandemia. A infecção causada pelo novo coronavírus tem alta mortalidade em uma pequena parcela da população infectada, especialmente em indivíduos idosos, imunodeprimidos, diabéticos, cardiopatas e hipertensos. Muitos infectados são assintomáticos (e podem ser portadores) ou apresentam sintomas leves a moderados, semelhantes ao estado gripal. O quadro clínico da COVID-19 na forma mais severa é caracterizado por uma tempestade inflamatória de citocinas, com alterações hematológicas e da coagulação que podem levar ao dano tecidual e morte. Exames laboratoriais inespecíficos podem apresentar-se mais elevados ou diminuídos conforme o curso da doença, e muitas vezes são úteis na predição de complicações, como o uso do D-dímero e a razão plaqueta/linfócitos. O diagnóstico laboratorial específico se baseia na detecção do ácido ribonucleico (RNA) viral por reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real (RT-PCR) de amostras de suabe nasal e orofaríngeo; é mais efetivo nos primeiros dias após o início dos sintomas. Testes sorológicos são úteis na detecção da resposta imune, pois tanto os anticorpos da imunoglobulina da classe M (IgM) quanto da classe G (IgG) podem ser detectados após sete dias do início dos sintomas clínicos, podendo se estender por mais de 25 dias, embora não isente o indivíduo de continuar infectante, dependendo de sua carga viral e apresentação clínica. O uso racional dos marcadores laboratoriais específicos deve respeitar a cronologia da doença, e a interpretação correta pode fornecer subsídios para um melhor manejo dos pacientes acometidos, bem como identificar portadores assintomáticos ou com pouco sintomas.
ABSTRACT COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease caused by the coronavirus of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In 2020, due to the outbreak, it was considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. The infection caused by the novel coronavirus has high mortality in a small portion of the infected population, especially in elderly, immunosuppressed, diabetic, cardiac, and hypertensive individuals. Many infected are asymptomatic (and may be carriers) or present mild or moderate flu-like symptoms. The most severe clinical picture of COVID-19 is characterized by an inflammatory cytokine storm, with hematological changes and coagulation dysfunction, which can lead to tissue damage and death. Nonspecific laboratory biomarkers may be either increased or decreased as the course of the disease progresses and are often useful in predicting complications of the disease, such as the use of D-dimer and platelet/lymphocyte ratio. Specific laboratory diagnosis is based on the detection of viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of nasal and oropharyngeal swab samples; it is more effective when performed in the first days after symptom onset. Serological tests are useful in detecting the immune response, since both class M (IgM) and class G (IgG) immunoglobulin antibodies can be detected seven days after the onset of clinical symptoms, and may extend for more than 25 days, although not exempting the individual from remaining infectious, depending on their viral load and clinical presentation. The rational use of specific laboratory markers must respect the disease chronology, and the correct interpretation may provide subsidies for a better management of affected patients, as well as identifying asymptomatic carriers or those with mild symptoms.
RESUMEN La COVID-19 es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa causada por el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2). En 2002, a causa del brote, fue reconocida como una pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). La infección por el nuevo coronavirus provoca alta mortalidad en una pequeña parcela de la población infectada, especialmente en ancianos, pacientes inmunodeprimidos, diabéticos, cardiópatas e hipertensos. Muchos infectados son asintomáticos (y pueden ser portadores) o presentan síntomas leves a moderados, como en un estado gripal. El cuadro clínico de la COVID-19 en la forma más grave es caracterizado por una tormenta inflamatoria de citoquinas, con cambios hematológicos y de la coagulación que pueden llevar a daño tisular y muerte. Pruebas de laboratorio inespecíficas pueden presentar tasas más altas o bajas según el curso de la enfermedad, y muchas veces son útiles en la predicción de complicaciones, como el uso del dímero D y la ratio plaquetas/linfocitos. El diagnóstico de laboratorio específico se basa en la detección del ácido ribonucleico (ARN) viral por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) en tiempo real de muestras de hisopado nasal y orofaríngeo; es más efectiva en los primeros días tras el inicio de los síntomas. Pruebas serológicas son útiles para detectar la respuesta inmune, pues tanto los anticuerpos de la inmunoglobulina M (IgM) como de la G (IgG) pueden se detectar siete días después del inicio de los síntomas clínicos, y pueden permanecer por más de 25 días, aunque no eximen al individuo de seguir infeccioso, dependiendo de su carga viral y presentación clínica. El uso racional de los marcadores de laboratorio específicos debe respetar la cronología de la enfermedad, y la interpretación correcta puede proporcionar recursos para un mejor manejo de los pacientes afectados, así como identificar portadores asintomáticos o con pocos síntomas.
ABSTRACT In this work, we developed and validated a HPLC-PDA method for the quantification of hibalactone in Hydrocotyle umbellata L., Araliaceae, subterraneous parts extracts and optimized its ultrasound-assisted extraction. Chromatographic separations were carried out with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile/methanol/water (10:65:25), a flow of 0.8 ml min−1, detection at 290 nm and C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The method validation parameters were determined according to Brazilian legislation. The optimization of the hibalactone ultrasound-assisted extraction was performed using Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology. The HPLC method for hibalactone quantification proved to be selective, linear, precise, accurate and robust, being useful for the analysis of hibalactone in H. umbellata subterraneous parts extracts. The optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were obtained with solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:5 g ml−1, ethanolic strength of 70% (v/v) and temperature of 65 °C. The results can provide support of the quality control and standardization of raw materials from H. umbellata.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effects of cataract surgery on cardiac autonomic modulation. METHODS: A cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted at the Hospital Maria Braido in the city of São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, between 2015 and 2016. We investigated 19 patients of both sexes who were all over 50 years old; all patients had a diagnosis of senile or bilateral cataracts and were recommended to undergo implantation of the intraocular lens. Heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated before, during and after cataract surgery. RESULTS: There were no significant changes in the time and geometric domains of HRV before, during or after surgery. The high-frequency (HF) band in normalized units (nu) on the spectral analysis significantly increased (p=0.02, Cohen’s d=0.9, large effect size). However, the low-frequency (LF) band in nu significantly decreased during surgery (p=0.02, Cohen’s d=0.9, large effect size). CONCLUSION: Throughout the intraocular lens implantation cataract surgery, there was an increase in parasympathetic modulation and a decrease in the sympathetic component of the heart rate (HR). We propose that this result is attributable to the supine position of the patients during surgery and the trigeminal reflex.
Abstract The use of silicon in Billbergia zebrina cultivation in vitro is an alternative for optimizing micropropagation of this important ornamental plant species. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth and anatomical and physiological alterations in Billbergia zebrina (Herbert) Lindley plants as a function of different sources and concentrations of silicon during in vitro cultivation and acclimatization. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a double factorial arrangement and an additional control treatment (2 x 3 + 1). The first factor was relative to calcium silicate and sodium silicate added to the Murashige & Skoog culture medium; the second factor was related to its concentrations, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg L-1. After 100 days, their growth, anatomical characteristics, level of silicon and chlorophyll content were evaluated. Growth characteristics were assessed after 60 days of acclimatization period. Plants absorbed more sodium silicate than calcium silicate. This source also stressed the plants impairing their growth, but the highest silicon absorption at 1 mg L-1 attenuated the stressful conditions. The supplementation of the culture medium with calcium silicate led to improved growth, anatomical, and physiological characteristics, which benefited the development of more resistant seedlings with better performance during acclimatization.
ABSTRACT A temporal analysis of fractal aggregates during water flocculation is presented. Water was prepared using kaolin solution and a non-intrusive image-based analysis method was used for two-dimensional fractal dimension assessment (dF). The dF values were determined for aggregates larger than 270 µm from 100 images taken in each combination of velocity gradients (Gf) and flocculation times (Tf). The Gf values of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 s-1 and Tf values of 2 to 180 minutes were studied, with a ΔTf of 1 minute for 2 ≤ Tf ≤ 10 minutes and a ΔTf of 5 minutes for 10 ≤ Tf ≤ 180 minutes. Results showed that dF tends toward stability from a Tf of 40 minutes, with distinct levels in each Gf. Further, dF values decrease from 1.80 to 1.35 for Gf from 20 to 60 s-1.
Three field experiments were carried out in a tropical environment in Brazil in order to evaluate the effect of planting date on crop evapotranspiration (ETc), crop coefficient (Kc) and water use efficiency (WUE) of three lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars grown in different seasons (autumn, winter and summer) under tropical climate. ETc values were obtained through the soil water balance method and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) through the Penman-Monteith method, using data collected in an automatic weather station located close to the experimental area. The results of the research showed that the mean values of ETc and Kc for lettuce were 3.5 mm day-1 and 0.82, respectively. The curly cultivar showed the highest yield (40.8 kg ha-1) during the autumn transplanting date. Results also showed that the three lettuce varieties have different responses to the climatic conditions. The greatest WUE was observed for the three lettuce varieties when they were grown during the autumn growing season, and the lowest values occurred during the winter growing season.
Três experimentos de campo foram conduzidos em ambiente tropical no Brasil com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da data de plantio sobre a evapotranspiração (ETc), o coeficiente de cultivo (Kc) e eficiência de uso da água (EUA) de três variedades de alface (Lactuca sativa L.). A cultura foi cultivada em diferentes épocas do ano (outono, inverno e verão) sob clima tropical. Os valores de ETc foram obtidos através do método do balanço hídrico do solo e a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo) pelo método de Penman-Monteith, utilizando dados coletados em uma estação meteorológica automática localizada próxima à área experimental. Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram que os valores médios de ETc e Kc do alface foram 3,5 mm dia-1 e 0,82, respectivamente. A variedade crespa apresentou a maior produtividade (40,8 kg ha-1) durante o plantio de outono. Os resultados também evidenciaram que as três variedades de alface têm respostas diferentes às condições climáticas da região. A maior EUA das três variedades de alface ocorreram quando elas foram cultivadas durante a estação o outono e os valores mais baixos ocorreram durante o cultivo de inverno.
Plant model systems are needed to properly conduct basic laboratory studies prior to field applications of phytoremediation. In vitro plant cultures are a useful tool for such research. This study focuses on the removal and/or degradation of 24 persistent organic pollutants under in vitro conditions by Helianthus annuus L (sunflower). The main purpose of exploiting this plant for phytoremediation process is due to its strong adaptability to adverse environments conditions such as resistance to pests, disease, and others. The study of bioremediation effects of all chemical molecules under in vitro conditions showed promising results. Sixteen out of twenty-four compounds evaluated reached up to 87% for remediation. The highest accumulation of pollutants was observed in the roots, showing that these results are consistent with the current literature. Through the study, it was observed effective absorption of POPs with logKow ranging from 4.50 to 6.91. Sunflower phytoremediation process efficiently detected heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-chlordane, chlordane, dieldrin, DDE, DDT, methoxychlor, mirex and decachlorobiphenyl.
Four new alkaloids, Brazoides A-D, together with three known compounds squalene, β-sitosterol and lupeol, were isolated from leaves of Justicia gendarussa. These structures were established by spectrometric techniques, mainly high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), including comparative analysis with literature values. Structural determination of the compounds, Brazoides A-D, was strengthened by molecular modeling and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to predict the NMR data and compare with the experimental NMR values of these natural products. The new compounds were tested against three human cancer cell lines (glioblastoma, prostate and colon), but none exhibited activity.
Resumo Crianças em idade escolar apresentam, com frequência, alto risco para o desenvolvimento de doenças biofilme-dependentes, incluindo cárie e doenças periodontais. Este estudo investigou a eficácia clínica de um dentifrício contendo o extrato de Eugenia uniflora Linn. (pitanga) comparado a um dentifrício com triclosan no combate à gengivite em crianças de 10 a 12 anos. Foi avaliado o potencial antibacteriano in vitro do dentifrício sobre microorganismos da cavidade oral (S. mutans S. oralis and L. casei) e realizado um estudo clínico fase II incluindo 50 sujeitos, com sinais clínicos de gengivite, divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Experimental - 25 sujeitos usaram o dentifrício contendo extrato de pitanga; e Controle - 25 sujeitos que usaram um dentifrício fluoretado contendo triclosan (Colgate Total 12(r)). Na baseline e após sete dias consecutivos de escovação, foi realizado o exame clínico para diagnóstico de gengivite (desfecho primário) e acúmulo de biofilme (desfecho secundário), utilizando o Índice de Sangramento Gengival (ISG) e Índice de Higiene Oral Simplificado (IHO-S). Os dados foram analisados utilizando o teste t pareado e não pareado (ISG) e teste de Wilcoxon e Mann-Whitney (IHO-S), com nível de significância de p≤0,05. Observou-se uma efetiva atividade antibacteriana do dentifrício experimental. No estudo clínico, observou-se redução de sangramento gengival em ambos os grupos experimental e controle (p<0,0001), não havendo diferença entre eles (p 0,178), embora com uma pequena magnitude de efeito. Apenas o grupo controle reduziu significantemente o acúmulo de biofilme (p=0,0039). Concluiu-se que o dentifrício experimental de E. uniflora mostrou-se eficaz na redução de gengivite em crianças de 10 a 12 anos. Assim, este dentifrício apresenta potencial para ser utilizado de forma eficaz e segura em odontologia preventiva.
Abstract School-age children are frequently at high risk for the onset of biofilm-dependent conditions, including dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a dentifrice containing Eugenia uniflora Linn. (Surinam cherry) extract versus a triclosan-based comparator in treating gingivitis in children aged 10-12 years. The in vitro antibacterial potential of the dentifrice was tested against oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis and Lactobacillus casei). Then a phase-II clinical trial was conducted with 50 subjects aged 10-12 years, with clinical signs of gingivitis. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) and control group (n=25), in which participants used the experimental dentifrice and a triclosan-based fluoridated dentifrice (Colgate Total 12(r)), respectively. Clinical examinations assessed the presence of gingivitis (primary outcome) and biofilm accumulation (secondary outcome) using the Gingival-Bleeding Index (GBI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and after seven days of tooth brushing 3x/day. The data were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test (GBI) and Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney (OHI-S), with p≤0.05. The experimental dentifrice showed efficient antibacterial activity in vitro. In the clinical trial, a significant reduction in gingival bleeding was observed in both experimental and control groups (p<0.0001), with no statistical difference between them (p=0.178), although a small size effect was observed. Biofilm accumulation was only reduced in the control group (p=0.0039). In conclusion, E. uniflora dentifrice showed anti-gingivitis properties in children aged 10-12 years. Thus, it may be a potentially efficient and safe product to be used alternatively in preventive dental practice
ABSTRACT Flowers of species of Senna are very morphologically diverse, however, nothing has been reported regarding variation in the presence of a unicarpellate gynoecium, which is characteristic of the group. This study reports the occurrence of a bicarpellate gynoecium in two enantiostylous species of Senna in an area of dry forest (Caatinga) in NE Brazil. Observations of floral morphology and estimates of the proportions of floral morphs in the populations were performed. The species produce three floral types: left (L), right (R) and bicarpellate (B). The proportion of these floral morphs were similar in the populations of Senna macranthera var. micans, but the number of B flowers in populations of S. trachypus was lower than that recorded for L and R flowers. The occurrence of this morphological variation may be related to enhancing pollen capture in both species; in S. trachypus, this variation may also be related to reducing florivory by caterpillars that were observed eating sexual elements of the flowers.
The present study describes the antiprotozoal activities of four cyclopalladated compounds, [Pd(dmba)(μ-Cl)]2, [Pd(dmba)(NCO)(isn)], [Pd(dmba)(N3)(isn)] and [Pd(dmba)(μ-NCO)]2, (dmba: N,N'-dimethylbenzylamine and isn: isonicotinamide), against the diseases leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum), Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) and human African trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei). [Pd(dmba)(μ-NCO)]2 exhibited good leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities against L. amazonensis and T. cruzi intracellular amastigote forms, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of less than 9 µM and selectivity indexes of 14.47 and 28.42, respectively. Stability essays were conducted in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) pH 7.0 and showed that [Pd(dmba)(μ-NCO)]2 is the most stable molecule. These findings indicate that this compound presented higher selectivity for these parasites than the other tested compounds. The data presented here suggest that this compound should be considered in the development of new and more potent drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.
Abstract Background Studies on “Spirituality, religion and health” (R/S) have been increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. Mapping this production can help researchers to understand this field and also to identify gaps in the Brazilian R/S studies. Objective To analyze the Brazilian scientific articles on “Religion, Spirituality and Health” available on the main electronic databases using a bibliometric approach. Methods A comprehensive review of four major databases (PubMed, Scopus, BVS and Web of Science) was conducted. Three reviewers performed the data analysis. Off-topic articles, articles from Portugal, books and thesis were excluded. Articles were then classified by: Publication year, journal, Central focus in R/S, Academic Area, Main topic and Study Type. Results From 3,963 articles found, 686 studies were included in the final analysis (320 had central focus on R/S). There was an increase of articles in the last decade (most observational), with predominance of mental health issues, and from journals in the field of psychiatry, public health and nursing. Discussion This study enabled us to widen our understanding about how the field of “spirituality, religion and health” has been established and how this field is increasing in Brazil. These findings can help in the development of future Brazilian studies.
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o impacto de extrato oleoso de nim, Azadirachta indica, no afídeo Aphis gossipii e em seu inimigo natural Cycloneda sanguinea, na melancia. Ensaios de toxicidade foram conduzidos com o produto comercial (DalNeem(r)) (1.475 g L-1 de azadirachtina) 0,0037 µg i.a. mL-1, 0,0074 µg i.a. mL-1 and 0,0148 µg i.a. mL-1, Malathion 1 µg i.a. mL-1, e água destilada como tratamento controle. Os produtos foram aplicados em discos de folhas de melancia e os insetos foram expostos ao resíduo dos produtos. Foram calculados padrão de crescimento instantâneo da população de A. gossypii e sobrevivência das larvas de C. sanguinea expostos aos diferentes tratamentos. Houve uma diminuição no padrão de crescimento instantâneo da população de A. gossypii com aumento da concentração de nim. Afídeos não se reproduziram nos discos de folhas tratadas com malathion, devido ao rápido efeito letal em adultos, menor que 24 horas após a exposição. Larvas de C. sanguinea expostas ao malathion sobreviveram por 24 horas. Sobrevivência do predador exposto a diferentes concentrações de nim também foi significativamente reduzida quando comparada a exposição à água. Entretanto, experimentos de laboratório podem ter superestimado o efeito do nim em predadores porque eles não mostraram comportamento de escape causado pela repelência do nim.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin) at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.