Abstract Heterogeneous cell populations of osteo/cementoblastic (O/C) or fibroblastic phenotypes constitute the periodontal dental ligament (PDL). A better understanding of these PDL cell subpopulations is essential to propose regenerative approaches based on a sound biological rationale. Objective Our study aimed to clarify the differential transcriptome profile of PDL cells poised to differentiate into the O/C cell lineage. Methodology To characterize periodontal-derived cells with distinct differentiation capacities, single-cell-derived clones were isolated from adult human PDL progenitor cells and their potential to differentiate into osteo/cementoblastic (O/C) phenotype (C-O clones) or fibroblastic phenotype (C-F clones) was assessed in vitro. The transcriptome profile of the clonal cell lines in standard medium cultivation was evaluated using next-generation sequencing technology (RNA-seq). Over 230 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified, in which C-O clones showed a higher number of upregulated genes (193) and 42 downregulated genes. Results The upregulated genes were associated with the Cadherin and Wnt signaling pathways as well as annotated biological processes, including “anatomical structure development” and “cell adhesion.” Both transcriptome and RT-qPCR showed up-regulation of WNT2, WNT16, and WIF1 in C-O clones. Conclusions This comprehensive transcriptomic assessment of human PDL progenitor cells revealed that expression of transcripts related to the biological process “anatomical structure development,” Cadherin signaling, and Wnt signaling can identify PDL cells with a higher potential to commit to the O/C phenotype. A better understanding of these pathways and their function in O/C differentiation will help to improve protocols for periodontal regenerative therapies.
Abstract Periodontitis develops as a result of a continuous interaction between host cells and subgingival pathogenic bacteria. The periodontium has a limited capacity for regeneration, probably due to changes in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) phenotype. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS) on mesenchymal phenotype and osteoblast/cementoblast (O/C) potential of PDLSCs. PDLSCs were assessed for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression by immunostaining technique. After, cells were exposed to PgLPS, and the following assays were carried out: (i) cell metabolic activity using MTS; (ii) gene expression for IL-1β, TNF-α and OCT-4 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); (iii) flow cytometry for STRO-1 and CD105, and (iv) osteogenic differentiation. PDLSCs were positive for TLR2. PgLPS promoted cell proliferation, produced IL-1β and TNF-α, and did not affect the expression of stem cell markers, STRO-1, CD105 and OCT-4. Under osteogenic condition, PDLSCs exposed to PgLPS showed a similar potential to differentiate toward osteoblast/cementoblast phenotype compared to control group as revealed by mineralized matrix deposition and levels of transcripts for RUNX2, ALP and OCN. These results provide evidence that PgLPS induces pro-inflammatory cytokines, but does not change the mesenchymal phenotype and osteoblast/cementoblast differentiation potential of PDLSCs.
Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLMSCs) are an important alternative source of adult stem cells and may be applied for periodontal tissue regeneration, neuroregenerative medicine, and heart valve tissue engineering. However, little is known about the impact of bacterial toxins on the biological properties of PDLSMSCs, including self-renewal, differentiation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Objective : This study investigated whether proliferation, expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and osteogenic differentiation of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105+ cells) would be affected by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EcLPS). Material and Methods : Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression was assessed in PDL-CD105+ cells by the immunostaining technique and confirmed using Western blotting assay. Afterwards, these cells were exposed to EcLPS, and the following assays were carried out: (i) cell viability using MTS; (ii) expression of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes; (iii) osteoblast differentiation assessed by mineralization in vitro, and by mRNA levels of run-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) determined by quantitative PCR. Results : PDL-CD105+ cells were identified as positive for TLR4. EcLPS did not affect cell viability, but induced a significant increase of transcripts for IL-6 and IL-8. Under osteogenic condition, PDL-CD105+ cells exposed to EcLPS presented an increase of mineralized matrix deposition and higher RUNX2 and ALP mRNA levels when compared to the control group. Conclusions : These results provide evidence that CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cells are able to adapt to continuous Escherichia coli endotoxin challenge, leading to an upregulation of osteogenic activities.