Abstract Cadmium, present in the environment, accumulates in different organs of animals and humans, and has deleterious effects on the kidney. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the methanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus in comparison with silymarin on renal function in cadmium-intoxicated rats for five days. Rats intraperitoneally injected with cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg). These rats were treated with either P. ostreatus extract (200 mg/kg) or silymarin to investigate the protective effects of the extract. Cadmium treatment induced significant histopathological impairments and increased cadmium levels, DNA fragmentation, and renal oxidative stress. However, treatment with P. ostreatus extract or silymarin improved the pathology, reduced the level of cadmium in renal tissue, and restored DNA fragmentation. In addition, a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels, and a significant increase in the levels of glutathione and catalase activity were observed. Thus, protective effects of P. ostreatus extract to its components. Chromatographic analysis of the P. ostreatus confirmed the presence of five phenolics (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, propyl gallate, and cinnamic acid) that exhibit strong antioxidant properties as free radical scavengers. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that treatment with P. ostreatus extract protects against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats.
Abstract Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Eimeria and infection affecting most domestic animal species. The aim of this research was to comprehend the impact of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on eimeriosis induced by Eimeria papillata in mouse jejunum, and how they work as antioxidants and anti-apoptotic agents against eimeriosis. The numbers of meronts, gamonts, and developing oocysts of E. papillata reduced after the infected mice were treated with the SeNPs. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and other oxidative stress-related molecules, such as glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were assayed. E. papillata was able to change the redox status of the jejunal cells; this was confirmed by the elevation of the MDA and NO levels, and the decrease of the GSH levels and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. SeNP treatment significantly reversed this disturbance of the redox status. The expression levels of the apoptotic markers Bax and caspase-3 in the jejunal samples were evaluated using qRT-PCR. The SeNPs decreased the Bax and caspase-3 expression after being administered to the E. papillata-infected mice. Collectively, the SeNPs demonstrated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities against murine eimeriosis.