Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is characterized by acantholysis determined by IgG4 binding to desmoglein I, a 160-kDa desmosomal glycoprotein. To investigate the immunopathological aspects of Brazilian PF, we determined levels of serum cytokines in patients with PF. Twenty-five patients with PF and a control group consisting of 10 healthy individuals were studied. Serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma were measured in the two groups by ELISA. The median concentration of IL-2 was lower in PF patients compared to the control group (0.45 and 9.50 pg/ml, respectively), as also was the concentration of IL-4 (0.26 and 10.16 pg/ml, respectively). The same was observed for IL-5 (7.94 and 15.74 pg/ml, respectively) and for IFN-gamma (5.90 and 8.58 pg/ml, respectively). For IL-10 and IL-12, higher concentrations were observed in PF compared to the control group (IL-10: 24.76 and 20.92; IL-12: 2.92 and 1.17 pg/ml, respectively). Considering the Th1/Th2 paradigm, it seems that a Th2 profile, mainly represented by IL-10, predominates in PF.