RESUMO A Hélice Tríplice tornou-se um modelo reconhecido internacionalmente, que está no âmago da disciplina emergente de estudos de inovação, e um guia de políticas e práticas nos âmbitos local, regional, nacional e multinacional. As interações universidade-indústria-governo, que formam uma “hélice tríplice” de inovação e empreendedorismo, são a chave para o crescimento econômico e o desenvolvimento social baseados no conhecimento. O artigo apresenta a origem do modelo, seu conceito, dinâmica, fontes e rotas alternativas.
ABSTRACT The Triple Helix has developed into an internationally recognized model that is at the heart of the emerging discipline of innovation studies, and a guide to policy and practice at the local, regional, national and multinational levels. University-industry-government interactions, forming a “triple helix” for innovation and entrepreneurship, are the key to knowledge-based economic growth and social development. The article discusses the model’s origin, concept, dynamics, sources, and alternate routes.
Wolbachia naturally infects a wide variety of arthropods, where it plays important roles in host reproduction. It was previously reported that Wolbachia did not infect silkworm. By means of PCR and sequencing we found in this study that Wolbachia is indeed present in silkworm. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wolbachia infection in silkworm may have occurred via transfer from parasitic wasps. Furthermore, Southern blotting results suggest a lateral transfer of the wsp gene into the genomes of some wild silkworms. By antibiotic treatments, we found that tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can eliminate Wolbachia in the silkworm and Wolbachia is important to ovary development of silkworm. These results provide clues towards a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between Wolbachia and silkworm and possibly other lepidopteran insects.