Abstract Objectives: Physical activity is critical, not only for the normal growth and development of children, but also for emotional and social behavior. The purpose of the article is to determine the relationship between physical education and social and emotional development of preschool children. Methods: The study involved 366 children (188 boys and 178 girls) at the ages of 5 (N = 191) and 6 (N = 174), who study in public kindergartens in Beijing (China). Within 3 months, additional physical education and fitness classes were held. Before and after the study, a test was conducted: Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE), which was completed by the parents. The research process did not affect the performance or development of children participants. Results: As a result of the study, the main regularities of the influence of physical education on social and emotional behavior of children were established. Based on the results of the study, it was determined that there is a positive correlation between age, physical education, and social-emotional behavior (r +—= 0.668). Conclusion: Gender differences are not statistically significant when it comes to physical activity’s effect on social and emotional behavior (p-value = 0.004). The results can be applied to programs for the prevention of psychosocial and social-emotional development delays of children in kindergartens.