RESUMEN La turba es un material orgánico que se ha utilizado ampliamente como adsorbente eficiente y de bajo costo. Dado que muchos estudios tienden a centrarse en las turbas templadas, hay una falta de conocimiento sobre el mecanismo de adsorción de las turbas tropicales. Este trabajo investiga el uso de dos turbas brasileñas (Cravinhos - C y Luis Antonio - LA) de la cuenca del río Mogi-Guacu para la adsorción de plomo (Pb), zinc (Zn) y cadmio (Cd), con el fin de contribuir al uso de materiales locales y de fácil acceso para remediar sitios contaminados. Las turbas adsorbieron un alto porcentaje de cationes, especialmente cationes Pb (100,0-46,3%), mostrando la turba comercial C una mayor adsorción que la turba LA. La orden de eliminación fue Pb2+ > Cd2+ ≥ Zn2+ para C y Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+ para LA. Los datos de equilibrio por lotes para turbas y para todos los metales se ajustaron mejor a la isoterma de Langmuir, con capacidades de adsorción (qm) para Pb, Zn y Cd de 37,3134, 29,0674 y 21,2890 mmol kg-1 en turba C y 21,7391, 14,2550 y 3,6460. mmol kg-1 en LA, respectivamente, valores comparables a los de otras turbas y biosorbentes. Las turbas estudiadas se consideran materiales adsorbentes eficientes, alternativos y de bajo costo para estos metales. La proximidad de las turberas a áreas con alto potencial de contaminación requiere el uso de materiales locales para reducir los costos de remediación.
ABSTRACT Peat is an organic material that has been widely used as an efficient and low-cost adsorbent. As many studies tend to focus on temperate peats, there is a lack of knowledge about the adsorption mechanism of tropical peats. This paper investigates the use of two Brazilian peats (Cravinhos - C and Luis Antônio - LA) from the Mogi-Guaçu river basin for the adsorption of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd), in order to contribute to the use of local and easy access materials to remediate contaminated sites. The peats adsorbed a high percentage of cations, especially Pb cations (100.0-46.3%), with commercial peat C showing higher adsorption than peat LA. The removal order was Pb2+ > Cd2+ ≥ Zn2+ for C and Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+ for LA. The batch data for both peats and for all metals were better fit by the Langmuir isotherm, with adsorption capacities (q m ) for Pb, Zn, and Cd of 37.3134, 29.0674 and 21.2890 mmol kg-1 in peat C and 21.7391, 14.2550 and 3.6460 mmol kg-1 in LA, respectively, values comparable to those of other peats and biosorbents. The studied peats are considered efficient, alternative and low-cost adsorptive materials for these metals. The proximity of peatlands to areas with high potential for contamination necessitates the use of local materials to reduce remediation costs.
Resumo Este artigo compara as características estruturais das substâncias húmicas aquáticas (SHA) com substâncias húmicas de turfa (SHT) usando diferentes técnicas analíticas, incluindo análise elementar, espectro de polarização cruzada de estado sólido 13C/ espectroscopia de ressonância magnética nuclear (13C CP-MAS RMN), espectroscopia no ultravioleta/visível e infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e carbono orgânico total (COT). As SHA foram extraídas de água coletada em um afluente do rio Itapanhaú (Bertioga/SP), utilizando resina XAD 8 e as SHT foram extraídas de turfa coletadas na margem do rio Mogi-Guaçu (Luis Antonio/SP) com uma solução de KOH. Após a diálise, ambos extratos de SHA e SHT foram filtrados em membrana com 0,45 m de tamanho de poro (Fração F1: < 0,45 m) e após fracionados através de ultrafiltração em diferentes tamanhos moleculares aparentes (F2: 100 kDa-0,45 m; F3: 30 - 100 kDa e F4: < 30 kDa). Os extratos de menor tamanho (F3 e F4) apresentaram um maior número de átomos de carbono alifáticos do que de carbonos aromáticos, uma maior concentração de grupos contendo oxigênio e uma percentagem mais elevada de ácidos fúlvicos do que os ácidos húmicos para ambas as frações de SHA e de SHT. No entanto, as SHA apresentaram maior quantidade de ácidos fúlvicos que ácidos húmicos em relação às SHT e propriedades estruturais distintas.
Abstract This paper compares the structural characteristics of aquatic humic substances (AHS) with humic substances from peat (HSP) through different analytical techniques, including elemental analysis, solid state 13C cross polarization/magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C CP-MAS NMR), ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and total organic carbon (TOC). The AHS were extracted from water collected in a tributary of the Itapanhaú River (Bertioga/SP) using XAD 8 resin, and the HSP were extracted from peat collected in the Mogi Guaçu River bank (Luis Antonio/SP) with a KOH solution. After dialysis, both AHS and HSP extracts were filtered in membrane of 0.45 µm pore size (Fraction F1: < 0.45 µm) and fractioned by ultrafiltration in different apparent molecular sizes (AMS) (F2: 100 kDa-0.45 μm; F3: 30 kDa-100 kDa and F4: < 30 kDa). The extracts with the lowest AMS (F3 and F4) showed a higher number of aliphatic carbons than aromatic carbons, a higher concentration of groups containing oxygen and a higher percentage of fulvic acids (FA) than humic acids (HA) for both AHS and HSP. However, the AHS presented higher FA than HA content in relation to the HSP and distinct structural properties.
Neste estudo a qualidade da água consumida por escolares na cidade de Uberaba-MG foi avaliada levando-se em consideração os resultados das análises químicas para determinação dos teores de cloro residual livre e níveis de cromo, cobre, manganês, chumbo e cádmio, além das análises microbiológicas para determinação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli, tomando-se como parâmetro para água potável, os valores estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 2.914 de 2011 do Ministério da Saúde (Brasil, 2011). Foram analisadas amostras de água provenientes de bebedouros e torneiras da cozinha de oito instituições de ensino infantil da rede pública municipal que atendem crianças com a faixa etária de 0 - 5 anos. As amostragens foram realizadas em períodos trimestrais compreendidos entre dezembro de 2011 e setembro de 2012, resultando em quatro coletas. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a presença de Escherichia coli e coliformes totais, acima dos valores permissíveis pela legislação em mais de 50% das amostras analisadas. Foi verificado ainda, teor de cloro residual livre abaixo do valor mínimo exigido pela legislação vigente em quase metade das amostras analisadas. No que se refere à concentração de metais, algumas amostras de água apresentaram teores de cobre, cádmio, cromo, manganês e chumbo acima do permitido. Os testes estatísticos revelaram que, quando analisado o período de realização das amostragens, apenas os valores referentes à concentração de cloro residual livre, cromo e chumbo não apresentaram diferença significativa (p>0,05). Os resultados obtidos revelam a necessidade de ações corretivas nos pontos de fornecimento de água para a população escolar, além do monitoramento e controle da qualidade da água para consumo humano, tanto pelos gestores escolares como pelas autoridades sanitárias.
This study evaluated the quality of water consumed by schoolchildren in the city of Uberaba, relying upon chemical analyzes to determine the levels of free-residual chlorine and levels of chromium, copper, manganese, lead and cadmium. Microbiological analysis was also performed in order to determine total coliforms and Escherichia coli, using the values established by Ordinance n0. 2914 of 2011 of the Ministry of Health as parameters for safe drinking water. Water samples were analyzed from the drinking fountains and kitchen faucets of eight public schools that serve children aged 0-5 years. Sampling was conducted quarterly from December 2011 to September 2012, resulting in four collections. The results revealed the presence of Escherichia coli and total coliforms above the valued permitted by legislation in more than 50% of the samples. It was also observed that concentrations of free-residual chlorine were below the minimum value required by law in nearly half of the samples analyzed. In relation to the concentration of metals, some samples had water contents of copper, cadmium, chromium, manganese and lead above the permissible levels. Statistical tests revealed that when analyzing the period of sampling, only the values for the concentrations of free-residual chlorine, chromium and lead showed no significant difference (p> 0.05). The results show the need for corrective actions at the water supply point for the school population, in addition to monitoring and controlling the quality of water for human consumption.
O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a degradação do hormônio 17β-estradiol com doses de cloro e tempos de contato comumente utilizados em estações de tratamento de água. A aplicação de cloro levou a pequenas alterações na maioria das variáveis analisadas. A concentração inicial de 17β-estradiol influenciou a remoção pelo cloro, e observou-se que o aumento da dose de cloro aumentou a remoção do 17β-estradiol até a dose de 2 mg.L-1. A maior remoção de hormônio obtida foi de 99%, e a inativação dos microrganismos indicadores, E. coli e coliformes totais foi de até 5,6 log para valores de CT maiores que 14 mg.min.L-1
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degradation of the estrogen 17β-estradiol at doses of chlorine and contact times commonly used in water treatment plants. The application of chlorine led to minor changes in most parameters examined. The initial concentration of the hormone affected the removal by chlorine and was observed that increasing the dose of chlorine increased the removal of 17β-estradiol until the dose of 2 mg.L-1. The highest removal of hormone obtained was 99%, and inactivation of the indicator microorganisms, E. coli and total coliform was up to 5.6 log for values of CT greater than 14 mg.min.L-1
An analytical procedure for determination of estriol, 17β-estradiol, estrone and 17α-ethinylestradiol in drinking water is presented. The method employs solid phase extraction (SPE) and sample dechlorination as cleanup procedures, followed by HPLC-DAD analysis. Validation was carried out using RE No. 899/2003 guidelines established by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance, Brazil), with some adaptations. The statistically evaluated results have shown that the method is selective, precise (0,06% to 19,40% CV) and accurate (91,52% to 109,41% average recoveries). The developed method was applied to the analysis of these contaminants in drinking water from São Luís, MA.
The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the apparent molecular size of aquatic humic substances on the effectiveness of coagulation with ferric chloride. Coagulation-filtration tests using jar test and bench-scale sand filters were carried out on samples of water with true color of approximately 100 Hazen units, prepared with aquatic humic substances of different molecular sizes (F1: < 0.45 µm, F2: 100 kDa - 0.45 µm, F3: 30 - 100 kDa and F4': < 30 kDa). For the water samples with lower apparent molecular size fractions, greater dosages of coagulant was needed to remove the color around 5.0 Hanzen units, mainly because these water samples contain higher concentrations of fulvic acids, which exhibited a larger number of negatively-charged groups.
Natural and synthetic estrogens have been detected in rivers, lakes and estuaries in several parts of the world. The primary sources of these compounds are the industrial and household effluents, which are not eliminated by the received treatment. This paper presents a brief description of the problem as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of the main compounds, the environmental behavior, methods of determination, ecotoxicological aspects and a discussion about its relevance in terms of ecology and public health.
This paper presents the study of adsorption/desorption of the explosive tetryl (2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethyl-nitramine) in different matrices, such as in natura soil, roasted soil, humic acid of soil, in natura peat, roasted peat and humic acid of peat. The aim of the study is to evaluate the interaction capacity of those matrices with the explosive. The analytic technique used was HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), with UV-detection at 230 nm. The Freundlich isotherms were utilized for the mathematical treatment of the data. The results indicated that in natura soil and in natura peat (with organic substances) are excellent matrices for the retention of tetryl, adsorbing it and keeping it immovable, preventing it from contaminating the groundwater. The largest adsorption of the explosive ocurred in in natura soil, while the smallest desorption was observed in in natura peat. After the calcination of the matrices, the smallest adsorption was observed, indicating that the retention occurs in the organic substance.
The use of pesticides in agriculture presents some problems to ecosytems as a consequence of their remaining in the environment. Conventional methods for environmental decontamination sometimes just transfer these residues from one place to another. The use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 to induce 2,4-D degradation in aqueous solution containing humic acid was studied. Results show that the herbicide is completely degraded after treatment with a 30 kGy dose. There were decreases in the degradation of the 2,4-D when humic acid was added at all doses. Some radiolytic products are proposed. The 2,4-D radiolytic yields (G) from 2,4-D were calculated.
The herbicides are being used in huge quantities for various porpouses. Once the herbicide finds its way into the environment, a major part of it comes in contact with soil. Humic substances are major organic constituents of soil. These substances may interact with herbicides in different modes and adsorption is probably the most important one. Adsorption will control the quantity of herbicide in the soil solution, and determines its persistence, leaching, mobility and bioavailability. In this work we studied the interaction between the herbicide 2,4D and soil in the presence and absence of organic matter. The methodology utilized for the determination of 2,4D was gas chromatography with eletron capture detector. The behavior of 2,4D was evaluated through Freundlich isotherms. It was verified that the herbicide 2,4D has a large adsorption in the humic acid .