Resumo Na Floresta Ombrófila Mista adicionalmente à diversidade florística, estudos sobre a diversidade anatômica da madeira de espécies nativas são interessantes pois permitem ampliar nosso conhecimento sobre a flora local. Portanto, este trabalho objetivou caracterizar anatomicamente e avaliar as similaridades e as principais características anatômicas que variam entre a madeira de 14 espécies nativas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, de acordo com IAWA (1989). Foram utilizadas 14 variáveis anatômicas para aplicar os métodos de similaridade de Manhattan e Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA). Como resultados, pode-se observar que as espécies apresentam características comuns, como a porosidade difusa e pontoações intervasculares alternas. Além disso, a presença de fibras septadas e parênquima axial escasso em 50% das madeiras, foram características marcantes para as espécies da região. Quanto à similaridade, observou-se a divisão das mesmas pelas dimensões dos raios, vasos e pontoções. No PCA, destacaram-se o diâmetro do vaso, largura e altura do raio, a altura do raio em número de células, as pontoações intervasculares e raio-vasculares. Pode-se concluir que, mesmo com a grande diversidade anatômica é possível diferenciar a madeira das espécies da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, que ocorrem naturalmente na região do Planalto Catarinense.
Abstract In the Araucaria Forest in addition to floristic diversity, studies on the anatomical diversity of wood of native species are required. Therefore, this work aimed to characterize anatomically and evaluate the similarities and the main anatomical characteristics that vary between the wood of 14 native species of the Araucaria Forest. For the characterizations, the procedures determined by IAWA (1989) were followed. Fourteen anatomical variables were used to apply the Manhattan similarity and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). As result, it can be observed that the species present common characteristics, such as diffuse porosity and alternate intervessel pits. In addition, the presence of septate fibers and axial parenchyma scarce in 50% of the woods were remarkable characteristics for the species of the region. As for the similarity, was observed the division by the dimensions of the rays, vessels and pits. In PCA, the diameter of the vessel, width and height of the radius, the height of the radius in number of cells, the intervessel pits and the radius-vascular were emphasized. In conclusion, even with the great anatomical diversity, it is possible to differentiate the wood from the species of the Araucaria Forest, which occur naturally in the region of Planalto Catarinense.
ABSTRACT Qualitative and quantitative changes in anatomical characteristics of charcoal from Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Eugenia pyriformis, Myrcia retorta and Plinia peruviana were described to provide its correct discrimination and information’s to contribute to evaluations in illegal logging. The material came from Planalto Catarinense region, southern Brazil. For each species, three discs at diameter at breast height were collected from three randomly selected trees. All the disks were sectioned to obtain samples in different positions of the trunk (bark, intermediate and pith). Samples were wrapped in aluminum foil and carbonized in a muffle furnace, with a final temperature of 450 °C and a heating rate of 1.66 °C.min-1. In species analyzed, growth rings are few distinct, delimitated by fiber regions; solitary vessel and axial parenchyma diffuse or diffuse-in-aggregate is predominant. The wood to charcoal conversion caused variation in the following characteristics: vessel diameters decreased varying from 21.1% in Myrcia retorta to 33.4% in Eugenia pyriformis, while the vessel frequency increased with values from 50.7% to 92.3% related to the same species; height and width of the rays showed reduction, however, Myrcia retorta presented ruptures in ray cells and dimensions increased; ray frequency increased from 3.9% in Eugenia pyriformis to 54.1% in Campomanesia xantocharpa. Qualitative characteristics of wood from studied species remained in charcoal after carbonization at 450 ºC, being possible to discriminate the material based on wood anatomy. In charcoal, vessels dimensions and frequency, after ray characteristics can be applied as first step in this Myrtaceae species distinction at forest control.