ABSTRACT We evaluated the vegetative and reproductive phenological patterns of the orchids Cattleya elongata, Cyrtopodium aliciae, Epidendrum orchidiflorum, Epistephium lucidum, and Sobralia liliastrum (Orchidaceae) growing on sandstone outcrops in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains in northeastern Brazil. Phenological events were associated with abiotic factors, leaf longevity, life form, plant growth pattern, and pollination syndrome. Phenological observations were made for 18 months and followed the phenophases of: stem/pseudobulb emission, leaf flush, leaf fall, flowering, immature fruit and mature fruit. Seasonality, synchrony, and correlations between phenophases and environmental variables were tested. The orchid species demonstrated aseasonal vegetative phenologies, except for pseudobulb emission. Reproductive events were seasonal, except for flowering in E. orchidiflorum. There was high flowering overlap between the species pairs S. liliastrum and C. aliciae (dry season) and C. elongata and E. lucidum (rainy season). Dispersal occurred during both the rainy and dry seasons. The vegetative phenophases exhibited low synchrony, and were related to certain morphofunctional characters (stems/pseudobulbs, CAM metabolism). The reproductive phenophases showed high synchrony consistent with the deceit pollination strategy usually associated with the group.