Resumo Este artigo compara as características estruturais das substâncias húmicas aquáticas (SHA) com substâncias húmicas de turfa (SHT) usando diferentes técnicas analíticas, incluindo análise elementar, espectro de polarização cruzada de estado sólido 13C/ espectroscopia de ressonância magnética nuclear (13C CP-MAS RMN), espectroscopia no ultravioleta/visível e infravermelho com transformada de Fourier e carbono orgânico total (COT). As SHA foram extraídas de água coletada em um afluente do rio Itapanhaú (Bertioga/SP), utilizando resina XAD 8 e as SHT foram extraídas de turfa coletadas na margem do rio Mogi-Guaçu (Luis Antonio/SP) com uma solução de KOH. Após a diálise, ambos extratos de SHA e SHT foram filtrados em membrana com 0,45 m de tamanho de poro (Fração F1: < 0,45 m) e após fracionados através de ultrafiltração em diferentes tamanhos moleculares aparentes (F2: 100 kDa-0,45 m; F3: 30 - 100 kDa e F4: < 30 kDa). Os extratos de menor tamanho (F3 e F4) apresentaram um maior número de átomos de carbono alifáticos do que de carbonos aromáticos, uma maior concentração de grupos contendo oxigênio e uma percentagem mais elevada de ácidos fúlvicos do que os ácidos húmicos para ambas as frações de SHA e de SHT. No entanto, as SHA apresentaram maior quantidade de ácidos fúlvicos que ácidos húmicos em relação às SHT e propriedades estruturais distintas.
Abstract This paper compares the structural characteristics of aquatic humic substances (AHS) with humic substances from peat (HSP) through different analytical techniques, including elemental analysis, solid state 13C cross polarization/magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C CP-MAS NMR), ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and total organic carbon (TOC). The AHS were extracted from water collected in a tributary of the Itapanhaú River (Bertioga/SP) using XAD 8 resin, and the HSP were extracted from peat collected in the Mogi Guaçu River bank (Luis Antonio/SP) with a KOH solution. After dialysis, both AHS and HSP extracts were filtered in membrane of 0.45 µm pore size (Fraction F1: < 0.45 µm) and fractioned by ultrafiltration in different apparent molecular sizes (AMS) (F2: 100 kDa-0.45 μm; F3: 30 kDa-100 kDa and F4: < 30 kDa). The extracts with the lowest AMS (F3 and F4) showed a higher number of aliphatic carbons than aromatic carbons, a higher concentration of groups containing oxygen and a higher percentage of fulvic acids (FA) than humic acids (HA) for both AHS and HSP. However, the AHS presented higher FA than HA content in relation to the HSP and distinct structural properties.
<p>The organic compounds present in leachate can contaminate soil, superficial and underground water, and the majority is considered harmful to the environment and human health. The objective of this study was to identify organic compounds present in landfill leachate located in Maringá-PR by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw leachate was characterized by measurements of pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOQ), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), apparent and true colors, turbidity and absorbance at 254 nm. The extraction of organic compounds in leachate was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with ethyl acetate and dichloromethane solvents, while varying the pH and ionic strength. The analysis of the leachate by GC-MS showed the presence of compounds considered to have toxic effects on the environment and human health, such as pesticides and phenolic compounds. Several compounds containing oxygenated groups such as carboxylic acids and alcohols were also identified, indicating that it was highly probable that the decomposition of waste in the landfill was in the acidogenic phase.</p>