The essential amino acids lysine and threonine are synthesized in higher plants via a pathway starting with aspartate that also leads to the formation of methionine and isoleucine. Lysine is one of most limiting amino acids in plants consumed by humans and livestock. Recent genetic, molecular, and biochemical evidence suggests that lysine synthesis and catabolism are regulated by complex mechanisms. Early kinetic studies utilizing mutants and transgenic plants that over-accumulate lysine have indicated that the major step for the regulation of lysine biosynthesis is at the enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase. Despite this tight regulation, recent strong evidence indicates that lysine catabolism is also subject to control, particularly in cereal seeds. The challenge of producing crops with a high-lysine concentration in the seeds appeared to be in sight a few years ago. However, apart from the quality protein maize lines currently commercially available, the release of high-lysine crops has not yet occurred. We are left with the question, is the production of high-lysine crops still a challenge?