Abstract Introduction: Due to late complications associated with the use of conventional prosthetic heart valves, several centers have advocated aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root replacement for patients with aortic valve insufficiency, in order to enhance late survival and minimize adverse postoperative events. Methods: From March/2012 thru March 2015, 37 patients consecutively underwent conservative operations of the aortic valve and/or aortic root. Mean age was 48±16 years and 81% were males. The aortic valve was bicuspid in 54% and tricuspid in the remaining. All were operated with the aid of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Surgical techniques consisted of replacing the aortic root with a Dacron graft whenever it was dilated or aneurysmatic, using either the remodeling or the reimplantation technique, besides correcting leaflet prolapse when present. Patients were sequentially evaluated with clinical and echocardiographic studies and mean follow-up time was 16±5 months. Results: Thirty-day mortality was 2.7%. In addition there were two late deaths, with late survival being 85% (CI 95% - 68%-95%) at two years. Two patients were reoperated due to primary structural valve failure. Freedom from reoperation or from primary structural valve failure was 90% (CI 95% - 66%-97%) and 91% (CI 95% - 69%-97%) at 2 years, respectively. During clinical follow-up up to 3 years, there were no cases of thromboembolism, hemorrhage or endocarditis. Conclusions: Although this represents an initial series, these data demonstrates that aortic valve repair and/or valve sparing aortic root surgery can be performed with satisfactory immediate and short-term results.
OBJETIVO: Este estudo avalia o comportamento biológico dos heteroenxertos porcinos descelularizados (Grupo Desc) comparados com os homoenxertos criopreservados (Grupo Crio) implantados em carneiros jovens. MÉTODOS: Foram implantados em cinco animais heteroenxertos pulmonares porcinos descelularizados e em outros cinco, homoenxertos pulmonares criopreservados. Os animais apresentaram seguimento médio de 280 ± 14 dias. O diâmetro valvar foi medido por ecocardiografia, a qual foi realizada no 30º pós-operatório e antes do explante. As valvas foram também avaliadas macroscopicamente. A avaliação histológica foi realizada utilizando-se coloração de H.E., Gomori e Weigert e imunohistoquímica (Fator VIII, CD3, Vimentina e CD68). A quantificação de cálcio foi realizada utilizando-se espectrometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: Houve um óbito no Grupo Desc por endocardite. As valvas do Grupo Crio apresentaram decréscimo na celularidade, enquanto que as valvas do Grupo Desc demonstraram repovoamento da matriz com células endoteliais e intersticiais. No grupo Crio, observou-se perda na densidade e desarranjo da arquitetura das fibras colágenas. A espectrometria de absorção atômica demonstrou maior calcificação no conduto e nas cúspides dos enxertos criopreservados quando comparados aos descelularizados (P=0,016). O diâmetro médio valvar no explante foi significantemente maior no Grupo Desc (P=0,025). CONCLUSÃO: Heteroenxertos descelularizados apresentam um comportamento biológico diferente quando comparados aos homoenxertos criopreservados, tornando-se repovoados por células com características de fibroblastos e células endoteliais. A matriz permaneceu bem preservada, o que possibilitou um processo de regeneração celular.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the biological behaviour of porcine decellularized heterografts (Desc group) compared with cryopreserved homografts (Crio group) implanted in juvenile sheep. METHODS: Decellularized porcine pulmonary heterografts were implanted in five animals and cryopreserved pulmonary homografts in another five. The animals were followed-up for a mean of 280 ± 14 days. The valve diameter was measured by echocardiography, which was performed at the 30th postoperative day, and before the explantation. The valves were also assessed macroscopically. Histological evaluation was performed using H.E., Gomori and Weigert staining. Immunohistochemistry specified different cell types (Factor VIII, CD3, Vimentin and CD68). Calcium quantity was analyzed using atomic absortion spectometry. RESULTS: There was one death in the Desc group due to endocarditis. The valves of Crio group showed decrease in the cellularity whereas the valves of Desc group showed matrix repopulation with endothelial and interstitial cells. Loss of collagen density and disarrangement of the normal fiber architecture was observed in Crio group. Calcium content demonstrated higher levels on the cusps and conduits in Crio group comparatively with Desc group. (P=0.016). The mean valvular diameter at the explantation was significantly increased (P=0.025) in the Desc group. CONCLUSIONS: Decellularized heterografts had a different biological behaviour when compared to cryopreserved homografts and become repopulated by cells with fibroblasts and endothelial cells characteristics. The matrix was preserved and some regenerative potential was present
Os hormônios andrógeno-anabolizantes têm seu uso difundido entre os esportistas, usualmente para aumentar a massa e a potência musculares. Assim, através do uso de questionários auto-aplicáveis em um estudo transversal, foram entrevistados 305 atletas (escolhidos aleatoriamente) das academias de Santa Maria, RS, a fim de quantificar diversas variáveis relacionadas ao uso de esteróides anabolizantes (EA). A maioria dos participantes era de homens (81,1%) e a média de idade foi de 22 anos (DP ± 7). Enquanto 29% usavam aditivos alimentares, apenas 2% dos indivíduos admitiram ter usado EA (apesar de 46% dos entrevistados conhecerem algum usuário de EA). Dois terços dos usuários adquiriram a droga em farmácias (sem prescrição médica) e 35,1% desconheciam seus paraefeitos. Dos entrevistados, 28,4% acreditam que doses "adequadas" de EA não causam dano à saúde. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a principal medida preventiva à iniciação ao uso de EA é a educação dos atletas.
Anabolic androgenic steroids are highly used among athletes, usually to increase muscle mass and strength. Therefore, using a self applicable questionnaire in a transversal study, 305 athletes were interviewed (randomically selected) from the Santa Maria physical fitness clubs, in order to establish many variables related to the use of anabolic steroids. Most participants were men (81.1%) and mean age was 22 years (sd ± 7). Although 29% used food additives, only 2% of the individuals admitted having used anabolic steroids (although 46% of the individuals submitted to the questionnaire know a anabolic steroid user). Two-thirds of the users purchased the drug in drugstores (with no medical prescription) and 35.1% did not know the effects of the drug. Twenty-eight point four percent of the subjects believe that "adequate" doses of anabolic steroids are not harmful to health. Thus, the authors concluded that the main preventive step against the use anabolic steroids is to inform the athletes.