Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) trials are undertaken when evaluating improved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines, and knowledge of agronomic and market-related traits and disease reaction is instrumental in making cultivar recommendations. This study evaluates the yield, cooking time, grain color and reaction to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli) and Curtobacterium wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens) of 25 common bean genotypes derived from the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Seventeen VCU trials were carried out in the rainy season, dry season and winter season from 2009 to 2011 in the state of São Paulo. Analyses of grain color and cooking time were initiated 60 days after harvest, and disease reaction analyses were performed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. In terms of yield, no genotype superior to the controls was observed for any of the seasons under consideration. Grains from the dry season exhibited better color, while the rainy season led to the shortest cooking times. The following genotypes BRS Esteio, BRS Esplendor and IAC Imperador were resistant to anthracnose, Fusarium wilt and Curtobacterium wilt and, in general, genotypes with lighter-colored grains were more susceptible to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt.
The traits that provide technological quality to common bean grains exhibit genetic and environmental variation and variation in the genotype x environment interaction. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different periods of the growing season on the technological quality of common bean grains. The experiment was conducted with 25 bean genotypes (carioca [beige with brown stripes] and black commercial group) that are part of the Value for Cultivation and Use (Valor de Cultivo e Uso - VCU) trials in three growing seasons, namely, the 2009/2010 rainy season, the 2010/2011 dry season and the 2010/2011 winter season, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications in which the following items were assessed: cooking time (CT), water absorption capacity before cooking (Peanc) and after cooking (Peapc), percentage of whole grains (PWG), total soluble solids in the broth (TSSb), volume expansion before cooking (EXPVbc) and after cooking (EXPVac), and dry grain density (DD), grain density after maceration (SD) and grain density after cooking (CD). Assessments showed that the different growing seasons for obtaining grains for the purpose of analysis of technological quality have an effect on the results and on differentiation among genotypes, indicating genotype x environment interaction. They also showed that the genotypes C2-1-6-1, C4-8-1-1, LP04-03, IAC-Imperador, P5-4-4-1 and Pr11-6-4-1-2 had the best results in relation to cooking time in the mean values of the three growing seasons. The use of early selection based on phenotypic correlations that exist among the technological features is not expressive, due to the variation of magnitude among the different growing seasons.
Os caracteres que conferem qualidade tecnológica aos grãos de feijão apresentam variação genética, ambiental e da interação genótipos x ambientes. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de épocas de cultivo na qualidade tecnológica dos grãos de feijoeiro. O experimento foi conduzido com 25 genótipos de feijoeiro (grupo comercial carioca e preto) pertencentes aos ensaios de VCU (Valor de Cultivo e Uso) nas três épocas de cultivo, correspondendo à época das águas 2009/2010, da seca 2010/2011 e do inverno 2010/2011, sob delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, onde avaliaram-se: tempo de cozimento (TC), capacidade de absorção de água antes (Peanc) e após (Peapc) o cozimento, porcentagem de grãos inteiros (PGI), sólidos solúveis totais no caldo (SSTc), expansão volumétrica antes (EXPVac) e após (EXPVpc) o cozimento e densidade dos grãos secos (DS), macerados (DU) e cozidos (DC). As avaliações revelaram que as épocas de cultivo dos grãos para análise de qualidade tecnológica influenciam nos resultados e na diferenciação entre os genótipos, indicando interação genótipo por ambiente. Também reportaram que os genótipos C2-1-6-1, C4-8-1-1, LP04-03, IAC-Imperador, P5-4-4-1 e Pr11-6-4-1-2 sobressaíram-se em relação ao tempo de cozimento na média das três épocas. O uso de seleção precoce com base em correlações fenotípicas existentes entre as características tecnológicas não é expressivo devido à variação de magnitude entre as diferentes épocas de cultivo.