Amino sugars are chemical compounds that have a sugar backbone, in which one of the hydroxyl groups is replaced by an amino group. Derivatives of amine-containing sugars, such as N-acetylglucosamine, are also considered amino sugars. The synthetic introduction of amino functionalities in a regio- and stereoselective manner ontosugar scaffolds represents a substantial challenge. Most of the modern methods for the preparation of 1-, 2- and 3-amino sugars are those starting from glycals, 2,3-unsaturated O-glycosides epoxy-sugars, keto-sugars among others. This review summarizes recente developments in the current state of knowledge concerning the occurrence, biosynthesis, synthesis and application of amino sugars.