ABSTRACT Background: The number of tuberculosis (TB) cases in prisons is higher than that in the general population and has been reported as the most common cause of death in prisons. This study evaluated the delay in the diagnosis and treatment of TB in Brazilian prisons. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2007 and 2015 using data from the five largest male prisons in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. TB case data was collected from the National Database of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), GAL-LACEN, and prison medical records. The following variables were recorded: prison, year of diagnosis, age, race, education, HIV status, smoking status, comorbidities, number of symptoms, percentage of cures, delay in diagnosis, patient delay, provider delay, laboratory delay, and delay in treatment. Descriptive statistics were used for the variables of interest. Results: A total of 362 pulmonary TB cases were identified. The average time between the first symptom and reporting of data was 94 days. The mean time between symptom onset and laboratory diagnosis was 91 days. The average time from symptom onset to first consultation was 80 days. The time between diagnosis and treatment initiation was 5 days. Conclusions: Delays were significant between reporting of the first symptoms and diagnosis and significantly smaller from the time between notification and start of treatment. Control strategies should be implemented to diagnose cases through active screening, to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment, and to reduce TB transmission.
Resumo Objetivos: Analisar o perfil epidemiológico dos óbitos maternos segundo raça/cor em Mato Grosso do Sul. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico dos óbitos maternos segundo raça/cor, a partir dos dados extraídos dos Sistemas de Informações de Mortalidade e de Nascidos Vivos, de 2010 a 2015. Foram calculadas a razão de mortalidade materna, razão de mortalidade materna específica e análise dos óbitos maternos segundo variáveis obstétricas. Resultados: O risco de óbito de mulheres pretas (RR = 4,3; IC95%= 2,088,71) e indígenas (RR = 3,7; IC95%= 2,26,23) foi aproximadamente quatro vezes maior quando comparadas às brancas. As causas obstétricas diretas apresentaram maiores frequências, tanto para o Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, como para a maioria das raças/cor no primeiro triênio. A razão da mortalidade materna específica foi elevada entre as mulheres indígenas e pretas, 651,8 e 416,7 óbitos por 100 mil nascidos vivos, respectivamente, na faixa etária entre 30 a 39 anos (p<0,05). Conclusão: A elevada razão de mortalidade materna para as mulheres indígenas e pretas e o predomínio de óbitos relacionados às causas obstétricas diretas entre as categorias de raça/cor refletem a inadequada assistência à saúde no período gravídico puerperal.
Abstract Objectives: to investigate the epidemiological profile, by race/skin color, of maternal deaths in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: the present epidemiological study of maternal death distribution by race/skin color was based on data extracted from Brazilian mortality and livebirth information systems from 2010 to 2015. The maternal mortality ratio and the specific maternal mortality ratio were calculated and analyzed according to obstetric variables. Results: the death risk for black (RR = 4.3, CI95%= 2.088.71) and indigenous women (RR = 3.7, CI95% 2.26.23) was approximately fourfold in comparison to the risk for white women. For direct causes of death, the state of Mato Grosso do Sul showed higher levels, 74.1%, as well as for most races/skin colors in the first triennium. The specific maternal mortality ratio was higher among black and indigenous women aged30 to 39 years old (416.7 and 651.8, respectively) per 100,000 live births (p<0.05). Conclusions: higher maternal mortality ratio for indigenous and black women and the predominance of deaths related to direct obstetric causes among race/skin color categories reflect inadequate health care during pregnancy and puerperium.