ABSTRACT. The intensification of anthropogenic activities on soils contributes to soil loss through erosion. Moreover, the pattern of soil loss in the Cobra River watershed, located in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte, is related to the history of land use and occupation, mainly from agriculture and the red ceramic industry, as well as the climatic seasonality of the region. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify the pattern of soil loss from the Cobra River microbasin in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. For this, the following analyses were performed: a survey of land use class areas for the years 1987, 1997, 2007 and 2017 as part of the Mapbiomas project; estimation of basin soil loss for these years; and quantification of areas of erosion vulnerability classes for this period. QGIS software was used to treat georeferenced data. According to the results, the land cover classes in the rich Cobra River microbasin fluctuated over time. Potential soil loss from the watershed increased from 1987 to 2017, with an increase of approximately 20 million megagrams of potentially erodible soil. The study of soil loss in a microbasin located in the Brazilian semiarid region should consider the variation in land cover over time, climatic seasonality and anthropic activity. To this end, it is important to use geotechnology and geoprocessing techniques to conduct a more robust spatiotemporal analysis.
O presente trabalho objetivou analisar o desempenho de sistema decanto-digestor com filtro biológico seguido por alagado construído e reator solar no tratamento de esgoto doméstico do assentamento rural Milagres em Apodi-RN. Nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2010 realizou-se o monitoramento do sistema 48 dias após o plantio do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Foram coletadas amostras do esgoto doméstico nas distintas etapas de tratamento, em quatro repetições no tempo, para determinação de características físico-químicas e microbiológicas referentes ao desempenho do sistema. Os resultados indicaram que houve remoção significativa de turbidez, Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio, Demanda Química de Oxigênio, sólidos totais, sólidos suspensos, fósforo e óleos e graxas com o uso sistema decanto-digestor com filtros biológicos seguidos de alagado construído e reator solar; a associação de radiação solar média de 28,73 MJ m-2 d-1, lâmina de 0,10 m de efluente no reator e tempo de exposição solar de 12 horas permitiu remoção de até 99,99% dos coliformes termotolerantes no esgoto doméstico em Apodi-RN; e o efluente tratado apresenta padrão microbiológico satisfatório às diretrizes brasileiras para uso agrícola com restrição.
This study aimed to analyze the performance of digester decant system with biological filter followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor in the treatment of domestic sewage from Milagres rural community in Apodi-RN. The treatment system was monitored for the period of October and November 2010, 48 days after planting Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Samples of domestic sewage were collected at different stages of treatment, in four replications on time, to determine physicochemical and microbiological characteristics about the system performance. The results indicated significant removal of turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total solids, suspended solids, phosphorus and oil and grease using the set digester decant with biological filter, followed by constructed wetland and solar reactor; the association of average solar radiation of 28.73 MJ m-2 d-1, effluent depth of 0.10 m on reactor and time of sun exposure of 12 hours provided removal of fecal coliform up to 99.99% of domestic sewage in Apodi, RN, the treated effluent met microbiological standard of the Brazilian guidelines for agricultural use with restrictions.