Abstract Objective: Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a systemic vasculitis that mainly occurs in children. Renal impairment is a major complication of Henoch-Schönlein purpura, but there is no established predictive marker for renal involvement. Thus, in this study, we investigated the risk factors for renal involvement in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Method: The medical records of children newly diagnosed as having Henoch-Schönlein purpura between 2005 and 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. Selected laboratory data were recorded before treatment initiation. The date and the age at diagnosis; sex; and the presence of arthralgia, gastrointestinal and renal involvement were obtained retrospectively. Results: This study included a total of 186 patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Among them, 36.0% had renal involvement; 28.4% had only microscopic hematuria, 53.7% had nonnephrotic range proteinuria, and 17.9% had nephrotic-range proteinuria during follow-up. The mean age was higher (p = 0.016) and female sex was predominant (p = 0.001) in patients with renal involvement than in those without renal involvement. Blood neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.002) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.002) were significantly higher than that of the patients without renal involvement. No statistically significant differences were observed in the hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, presence of arthralgia, and gastrointestinal involvement between patients with and without renal involvement. Logistic regression analysis revealed female sex (odd ratio = 3.213) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (odd ratio = 1.329) as risk factors for renal involvement. Conclusions: Female sex and high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were risk factors for renal involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
Resumo Objetivo: A infecção do trato urinário (ITU) causada por cepas de bactérias resistentes está cada vez mais prevalente em crianças. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as características clínicas e os fatores de risco de ITU causada por bactérias produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro ampliado adquiridas na comunidade (ESBL CA) em neonatos. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo feito por mais de cinco anos em um único centro sul-coreano. Neonatos internados com ITU febril foram inscritos e divididos em dois grupos (ITU por ESBL CA em comparação com não ESBL CA). A prevalência anual foi calculada. As características básicas e o curso clínico, como duração da febre e achados laboratoriais e radiológicos, foram comparados entre os dois grupos. Os fatores de risco associados à ITU por ESBL CA foram investigados. Resultados: Entre os neonatos inscritos (n = 185), 31 (17%) apresentaram ITU por ESBL CA. A prevalência anual de ESBL em ITU por ESBL CA aumentou durante o estudo (0% em 2010, 22,2% em 2015). Os neonatos com ITU por ESBL CA apresentaram maior duração de febre após o início dos antibióticos (2 ± 1,1 em comparação com 1,5 ± 0,6 dias, p = 0,020). Os defeitos corticais no exame renal e a falha precoce no tratamento foram mais frequentes em ESBL CA (64,5 em comparação com 42,2%, p = 0,023; 22,6 em comparação com 4,5%, p = 0,001). Uma análise de regressão logística revelou que as anomalias do trato urinário e a ITU anterior eram fatores de risco independentes de ITU por ESBL CA (razão de chance: 2,7; p = 0,025; 10,3; p = 0,022). Conclusão: A incidência de ITU causada por bactérias produtoras de ESBL aumentou em neonatos sul-coreanos. O reconhecimento do curso clínico e dos fatores de risco de ITU por ESBL poderá ajudar a determinar as diretrizes adequadas de manejo.
Abstract Objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by resistant strains of bacteria is increasingly prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for UTI caused by community-acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase (CA-ESBL)-producing bacteria in infants. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed over 5 years in a single Korean center. Hospitalized infants with febrile UTI were enrolled and divided into two groups (CA-ESBL vs. CA non-ESBL UTI). The yearly prevalence was calculated. Baseline characteristics and clinical course such as fever duration, laboratory and radiological findings were compared between the two groups. Risk factors associated with the CA-ESBL UTI were investigated. Results: Among the enrolled infants (n = 185), 31 (17%) had CA-ESBL UTI. The yearly prevalence of ESBL of CA-ESBL UTI increased during the study (0% in 2010, 22.2% in 2015). Infants with CA-ESBL UTI had a longer duration of fever after initiating antibiotics (2.0 ± 1.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.6 days, p = 0.020). Cortical defects on renal scan and early treatment failure were more frequent in CA-ESBL (64.5 vs. 42.2%, p = 0.023; 22.6 vs. 4.5%, p = 0.001). A logistic regression analysis revealed that urinary tract abnormalities and previous UTI were independent risk factors for CA-EBSL UTI (odds ratio, 2.7; p = 0.025; 10.3; p = 0.022). Conclusion: The incidence of UTI caused by ESBL-producing bacteria has increased in Korean infants. Recognition of the clinical course and risk factors for ESLB-producing UTI may help to determine appropriate guidelines for its management.