In this study, we evaluated the immune response of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with two distinct protocols. One group was treated with conventional chemotherapy using pentavalent antimonium salts and the other with immunochemotherapy where a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis was combined with the antimonium salt. Our results show that, although no differences were observed in the necessary time for complete healing of the lesions between the two treatments, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients treated by chemotherapy showed smaller lymphoproliferative responses at the end of the treatment than those from patients in the immunochemotherapy group. Furthermore, IFN-gamma production was also different between the two groups. While cells from patients in the chemotherapy group produced more IFN-gamma at the end of treatment, a significant decrease in this cytokine production was associated with healing in the immunochemotherapy group. In addition, IL-10 production was also less intense in this latter group. Finally, an increase in CD8+ -IFN-gamma producing cells was detected in the chemotherapy group. Together these results point to an alternative treatment protocol where healing can be induced with a decreased production of a potentially toxic cytokine.