More than 40 million households in India depend at least partially on livestock production. Buffaloes are one of the major milk producers in India. The prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A) gene are reportedly associated with milk protein and milk fat yields in Bos taurus. In this study, we sequenced the PRLR and PPARGC1A genes in the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The PRLR and PPARGC1A genes coded for 581 and 819 amino acids, respectively. The B. bubalis PRLR gene differed from the corresponding Bos taurus at 21 positions and four differences with an additional arginine at position 620 in the PPARGC1A gene were found in the amino acid sequence. All of the changes were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Twelve buffalo-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in both genes, with five of them being non-synonymous.