RESUMO O autor resgata a teoria do desenvolvimento para ilustrar as diferenças notáveis entre os padrões e resultados da acumulação capitalista nas regiões centrais e periféricas. Enquanto nas primeiras o resultado foi o aumento dos salários e da qualidade de vida, conclui que nas regiões periféricas houve o recrudescimento das desigualdades sociais e dos padrões de dominação, para, a partir dessas reflexões, estabelecer o conceito de subdesenvolvimento e refletir meios de superá-lo.
ABSTRACT The author recalls the development theory to illustrate the notable differences between the patterns and results of capitalist accumulation in central and peripheral regions. While in the former the result was an increase in wages and quality of life, he concludes that in the peripheral regions there has been an upsurge in social inequalities and patterns of domination, in order to, based on these reflections, establish the concept of underdevelopment and reflect ways of overcoming it.
This is a paper-synthesis where the author summarizes his theory of development and underdevelopment. Some basic ideas are here presented: the economic theory of development must start wiht the study of history; underdevelopment is a specific historical and economical phenomenon, that cannot be thought in terms of linear stages of history; this historical phenomenon must be studied in structural terms, relating the historic and the economic aspects; the basic characteristic of underdevelopment is the dependency relation, expressed in the center-periphery system; in the study of development the basic concept to start with is the concept of social surplus, its forms of appropriation and utilization. The paper ends with an analysis of the frustrations of a reformist. Protectionism, that was justifiable in a first phase of industrialization, was maintained too long in Latin America; in a second phase, an active economic policy for exports was necessary. On the other hand the populist risk was always present, while the real social problems related to a high level of income concentration were not solved.