Abstract Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ETS, ITS and atpB - rbcL spacer sequences assessed the phylogenetic status of the southern Brazil sea asparagus species of the genus Salicornia (Salicornioideae, Amaranthaceae). Accessions of Patos Lagoon estuary (32° S) were obtained from wild plants and two pure line lineages, selected from contrasting prostrate (BTH1) and decumbent (BTH2) ecomorphotypes found locally. Patos Lagoon wild plants, BTH1 and BTH2 f4 progenies showed 100% identical sequences for the atpB - rbcL and ITS spacers, only two mutations for ETS. Comparison of the sequences of these three markers with GenBank records confirmed the identity of Brazilian accessions as Salicornia neei . Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of ETS sequences indicated that the southern Brazilian accessions of Salicornia certainly are not close to any of the Salicornia ambigua accessions in GenBank, which are restricted to the northern hemisphere, nor are they related to any Salicornia fruticosa/Salicornia perennis clade accessions, which are also restricted to Eurasia. All above cited species have been wrongly applied to the southern Brazil sea asparagus.