The Earth's atmosphere has a large number of small solid and liquid particles which differ in size, shape and composition. One of the most obvious characteristics of the phenomena of air pollution is linked to the occurrence of atmospheric aerosol. The research was conducted in a protected nature reserve, Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN) Social Service of Commerce (SESC) Pantanal , at 111 m of altitude (16º39' S, 56º47' W) and is referred to here as SESC - Advanced Research Center of Wetland , located about 160 km from Cuiabá - MT. The sampling device consists of samplers fine and coarse particles, separating the fine fraction of the aerosol (dp <2.5 µm) from the coarse fraction (2.5 <dp <10 µm). In August 2012, concentrations of fine particles were up to nine times higher (up to 18 µg m-3) than that recorded in the rainy months of 2012 and 2013 (amounts around 2 µg m-3). The concentrations of coarse particles were up to three times higher in the dry season, compared to the rainy season.