Weather conditions and the Brazilian fertile soil contribute to abundant natural resources in a wide variety of fiber types. These fibers have attracted interest in Materials Science area for such characteristics as: low cost, high elasticity modulus and renewability. In this context, the objective of this work was physical, chemical and morphological characterization of purple banana fibers (Musa velutina). The following characterizations were employed: TG, DSC, FTIR, XRD, SEM, density, mechanical properties and chemical composition. The results showed that the purple banana fibers had good thermal, mechanical, morphological and structural properties. Treatment with sodium hydroxide was efficient in removing amorphous regions present on the fiber as evidenced by the chemical composition, increasing the crystallinity index. Therefore, the purple banana fiber is promising as reinforcement in polymer matrices.