ABSTRACT There is a knowledge gap regarding the influence of bamboos on natural regeneration. This study evaluated how abundance, richness, dominance, evenness, diversity of the seed bank and biotic and abiotic factors (e.g., canopy opening, herbaceous cover, and litter thickness), differ between bamboo dominated (B) and non-dominated (NB) areas. The study was conducted in a fragment of Semideciduous Seasonal Forest surrounded by an agricultural landscape. Soil samples were taken at 20 points in each area at two time periods, to evaluate the seed bank. The results show that diversity and structural parameters of the seed bank differ between areas and time periods. There was higher abundance and richness of seedlings of herbaceous ruderal species in area B and a greater abundance of seedlings of arboreal species in area NB. Sampling points in the bamboo dominated area had greater canopy openings and greater cover by herbaceous species, facilitating the establishment of individuals belonging to the families Poaceae and Cyperaceae, which could have competitive advantages over other species of the regenerating community. Considering that bamboo can affect the seed bank, long-term studies are needed to understand successional dynamics and evaluate suitable management actions to conserve the diversity in remaining forests.