Eleven species of fleas were collected from 601 small rodents, from November 1995 to October 1997, in areas of natural focus of bubonic plague, including the municipalities of Nova Friburgo, Sumidouro and Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among 924 fleas collected, Polygenis (Polygenis) rimatus (Rhopalopsyllidae) was the predominant species regarding the frequency, representing 41.3% (N:382), followed by P. (Neopolygenis) pradoi, representing 20% (N:185) and Craneopsylla minervaminerva (Stephanocircidae), representing 18.9% (N:175). The host Akodon cursor harbored 47.9% of these fleas. Other six host species were infested by 52.1% of the remaining fleas. Fleas were found on hosts and in places within the focus not previously reported by the literature.