Microdischarges at moderate to high pressure in argon were investigated. A hole opening diameter of 500 µm direct current (dc) microhollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were characterized by electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) for pressures ranging between 90 and 800 Torr and current from 5 to 20 mA. Current-voltage characteristic curves were obtained as a function of the pressure for this hole diameter. MHCD enables stable dc discharges for molybdenum electrodes material at constant Ar + 2%H2 flow of 0.03 l/min. Optical emission spectroscopy and analysis of the spectral line broadening of plasma line emissions were performed in order to measure gas discharge parameters. Electron number densities were obtained from Hβ Balmer line ( ~ 10(14) cm-3). For the above mentioned discharge conditions, gas temperature was estimated to be 550 - 850 K from OH rotational bands. Excitation temperature was measured based on two lines method (from atomic Mo lines) and from 4p - 4s and 5p - 4s Ar radiative transitions. Hydrogen atom temperature was measured for 800 Torr ( ~ 12000 K).
Através de uma filmadora digital e do software de domínio público VirtualDub consegue-se registrar espacial e temporalmente a evolução dinâmica de um sistema muito rápido, como por exemplo, a queda livre. Neste artigo são abordados dois experimentos clássicos de queda livre: a) de uma corrente de elos e b) de uma configuração catenária da corrente com uma das extremidades fixa (bungee jump). Estes experimentos são analisados empiricamente através de montagens bastante simples, mas reveladores de conceitos físicos importantes da mecânica. O programa VirtualDub possibilita selecionar os quadros da filmagem. A análise destes quadros fornece prontamente elementos das diversas variáveis dinâmicas tais como velocidade, força e aceleração, sendo um poderoso auxiliar no estudo do movimento.
Using a digital camera and public common software VirtualDub it was possible to record the space-time evolution of a fast dynamic system, such as a body in free fall. This paper treats two classical free fall experiments: a) falling chain and b) a free falling folded chain (bungee jump). Analyzed empirically in a simple setup, these experiments showed very important concepts of mechanics. The VirtualDub program enables the selection of frames from the video record. The analysis of these frames provides elements of several dynamical variables such as velocity, force and acceleration, and is a powerful tool in the study of the movement.
Recent studies suggest that base pairing is an efficient electronic delocalization mechanism. However, defects may break down such effect. In the present work we show how a simple model of defects suppresses the delocalization, which survives only for low defect concentrations.