ABSTRACT Páramos are unique strategic ecosystems in the neotropical region, above the upper limit of closed forest and below the lower limit of perpetual snow in the tropical mountains of Central and South America. Their soils are of particular importance for water regulation and carbon storage; however, thousands of peasants develop agricultural activities such as potato cultivation and livestock farming in these areas. This research aimed to evaluate the possible heavy metals contents (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead) and pesticide residues (348 in total) associated with potato cultivation and livestock farming activities in soils of Páramo ecosystems (Cruz Verde and El Verjón) in Cundinamarca, Colombia. Soil samples are from areas in the Páramo under potato crops and livestock farming, at two different altitudes: 3300 m a.s.l. (meters above sea level) and 2900 m a.s.l.; and then, the physical-chemical properties, heavy metals, and pesticide content were determined in each sample. The results showed that none of the soils evaluated exceeded the concentrations of heavy metals permitted by the normativity that was analyzed. On the other hand, we found the presence of the fungicide dimethomorph (0.27 mg kg-1) in soils under potato crops at altitudes 1 and 2, fungicide metalaxyl (0.013 mg kg-1) in soils under potato crops at altitude 1, and insecticide thiamethoxam (0.048 mg kg-1) in soils under potato crops at altitude 2. Anyhow, the statistical analysis did not show significant heavy metals contents or pesticide residues in the Páramo soils associated with potato cultivation and livestock farming; nonetheless, there are significant impacts on five of the physicochemical properties of the soils under study (moisture, bulk density, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, and phosphorus). Although soil physicochemical parameters properties were modified by soil potato crop and cattle raising, these land land-use types did not cause relevant impacts heavy metals and pesticides, which could be due to the specific agricultural practices adopted in the area (Potato-pasture rotation system, with fallow periods of between 7 and 10 years). Finally, this study represents the first report on heavy metals and pesticide residues in Páramo soils.