Abstract Objectives: Decreased Sound Tolerance (DST) is a negative reaction to a sound that does not cause any reaction in an individual with normal hearing. DST’s subclasses include hyperacusis, phonophobia, and misophonia, which are distinct and have therapy variations. There is no diagnostic method or scale that distinguishes them in the literature. This study’s purpose was to develop a screening scale that distinguishes these three DSTs. Methods: The study comprised 257 willing participants with normal hearing. Cronbach alpha coefficient, item-total correlation, and item differentiation of the Decreased Sound Tolerance Scale-Screening (DSTS-S) were evaluated. Structural validity of DSTS-S was performed by Varimax rotation with Kaiser normalization using Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA), and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed to assess its structural compatibility. The scale’s total scores from each section were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test in symptom (+) and symptom (–) participants. Results: The Cronbach alpha value for hyperacusis, phonophobia, and misophonia sections of DSTS-S was calculated as 0.881, 0.775, and 0.938, respectively. The difference between the independent samplet-test and the variables was statistically significant (p<0.01). The Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference between the median values of the total groups ’scores with and without hyperacusis, phonophobia, and misophonia (HTS, PTS, and MTS, respectively) (p<0.05). Evaluation by ROC analysis showed that hyperacusis was useful in predicting the presence of hyperacusis, phonophobia was useful in predicting the presence of phonophobia, and misophonia was useful in predicting the presence of misophonia (p< 0.001). Hyperacusis and misophonia sections showed high reliability, and phonophobia section showed a moderately reliable level. The Kappa test showed that the compatibility between test–retest for the total scores was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The study’s results indicated that DSTS-S is a valid and reliable scale for identifying subtypes/problems/classes of decreased sound tolerance.
RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Manter o equilíbrio na postura vertical é uma tarefa cotidiana constantemente praticada por adultos saudáveis, e é efetivamente realizada pela maioria sem a necessidade de um controle atencional. OBJETIVO: A finalidade deste estudo foi examinar a influência de tarefas cognitivas concomitantes no equilíbrio postural de indivíduos saudáveis. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo em que participaram 20 voluntários saudáveis. As tarefas cognitivas e de equilíbrio foram realizadas separadamente; e em seguida, realizadas simultaneamente. A tarefa de controle postural consistiu em seis condições (C) do Teste de Organização Sensorial (TOS). A tarefa cognitiva consistiu na repetição de dígitos com apresentações variadas e vários níveis de dificuldade. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os escores do TOS para as condições C1, C2, C3 e C4 para "dupla tarefa" vs. "não tarefa" (p < 0,05). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os escores do TOS para as condições C5 e C6 e para a combinação dos escores do TOS para "dupla tarefa" vs. "não tarefa" (p > 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Durante a realização de dupla tarefa, foram determinados aumentos na oscilação postural para as condições C1, C2, C3 e C4 para todos os modos de apresentação e níveis de dificuldade das tarefas cognitivas.
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Keeping balance of the upright stance is a highly practiced daily task for healthy adults and is effectively performed without overt attentional control in most. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of concurrent cognitive tasks on postural sway in healthy participants. METHODS: This was a prospective study. 20 healthy volunteer subjects were included. The cognitive and balance tasks were performed separately and then, concurrently. Postural control task consisted of 6 conditions (C) of the Sensory Organization Test. The cognitive task consisted of digit rehearsal task of varying presentation and varying levels of difficulty. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was noted between dual task and no task for C1, C2, C3 and C4 Sensory Organization Test scores ( p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between dual task versus non-task for C5, C6 and combined Sensory Organization Test scores ( p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: During dual task, increase has been determined in postural sway for C1, C2, C3 and C4 for all presentation modes and difficulty levels of the cognitive tasks.
Quedas representam um importante problema de saúde entre a população idosa. Aproximadamente um terço dos idosos acima de 65 anos de idade sofrerão uma ou mais quedas por ano. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o equilíbrio entre idosos que caem e aqueles que não sofrem queda. Desenho do estudo: clínico. MÉTODOS: Investigamos 30 indivíduos com mais de 65 anos de idade. 15 haviam sofrido queda em um período de um ano (Grupo I) e 15 não tinham passado de quedas (Grupo II). Comparamos os valores da Posturografia Dinâmica Computadorizada (PDC); Teste de Organização Sensorial (TOS); Limites de Estabilidade (LE); Deslocamento Ponderal Rítmico (DPR) e Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg (EEB) entre os indivíduos dos grupos I e II. RESULTADOS: Os valores de TOS 3, 6 e composto, EEB e escore de velocidade no eixo direita-esquerda do DPR foram significativamente menores no Grupo I e determinamos o TOS 4, 5, 6, composto e EEB do grupo II (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Os valores de PDC e EEB em idosos que sofrem quedas estiveram significativamente mais baixos quando comparados àqueles que não caíram.
Falls present a substantial health problem among the elderly population. Approximately one-third of community-dwelling people over 65 years of age will experience one or more each year. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate balance between fallers and non-fallers elderly. Study Design: Clinical study. METHODS: We studied 30 subjects older than 65 years of age. 15 subjects had a history of falls within a year (Group I) and 15 subjects had no history of falls (Group II). The scores of Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP); Sensory Organization Test (SOT), Limits of Stability (LOS), Rhytmic Weight Shift (RWS) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) findings gathered from the individuals from Group I and Group II, were compared. RESULTS: The SOT 3, 6, composite, BBS scores and left-right on-axis velocity score of RWS test of the Group I were found to be significantly lower the Group II (p < 0.05). A positive correlation between the SOT 3, 5, composite and BBS scores of Group I and the SOT 4, 5, 6, composite and BBS scores of Group II is determined (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The CDP and BBS scores in fallers were found to be significiantly lower as compared to the non-fallers elderly.