Abstract Introduction: Khamira Gawzaban Ambari Jadwar Ood Saleeb Wala (KGAJOS) is a polyherbal compound Unani Pharmacopoeial formulation described in traditional Unani texts as Muqawwi-e-Aza-e-Raeesa (tonic for brain, heart, liver and stomach). KGAJOS is reported to possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in mice. Though it is used clinically for various neurological conditions, preclinical efficacy of this formulation in learning and memory enhancement / improvement is not established. Method: KGAJOS was evaluated for cognitive function improvement activity using Morris water maze test in C57BL/6 mice. Piracetam was used as positive control for comparison. Anymaze video tracking software was used for tracking the path of mice in pool as per standard protocol. Results: During probe trial in Morris water maze test, a significant increase in time spent in platform quadrant was observed at 1000 and 1500 mg/kg bw of KGAJOS (p<0.01 and 0.001, respectively) as well as in piracetam group (p<0.01) compared to vehicle control. Latency to reach the platform quadrant (escape latency) was significantly reduced (p<0.001) in piracetam and KGAJOS group at 1000 and 1500 mg/kg bw compared to vehicle control. No change in time spent in platform quadrant and escape latency was observed at 500 mg/kg bw of KGAJOS. Conclusions: Morris water maze experiment conducted in mice revealed improved learning and memory function of KGAJOS at the dose levels of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg bw whereas 500 mg/kg bw was not found to be effective. Observed efficacy of KGAJOS confirmed the traditional claims and usage of this formulation in conditions associated with cognition and memory.
Resumen Introducción: Khamira Gawzaban Ambari Jadwar Ood Saleeb Wala (KGAJOS) es una formulación de Unani compuesto de poliherbal descrito como tónico para el cerebro, corazón, hígado y estómago. Este estudio se realizó para evaluar la eficacia preclínica de KGAJOS en el aprendizaje y la memoria. Método: Se evaluó la actividad de mejora de la función cognitiva de KGAJOS utilizando la prueba de laberinto de agua de Morris en ratones C57BL / 6. Se utilizó piracetam como control positivo. Se utilizó el software de seguimiento de video Anymaze para rastrear la ruta. Resultados: Durante la prueba de la sonda, se observó un aumento significativo en el tiempo empleado en el cuadrante de la plataforma a 1000 y 1500 mg / kg de peso corporal de KGAJOS (p <0,01 y 0,001, respectivamente) y en el grupo de piracetam (p <0,01) en comparación con el control. La latencia para alcanzar el cuadrante de la plataforma (latencia de escape) se redujo significativamente (p <0,001) en el grupo de piracetam y KGAJOS a 1000 y 1500 mg / kg de peso corporal en comparación con el control. Conclusiones: El experimento del laberinto de agua de Morris reveló una mejora en la función de aprendizaje y memoria con 1000 y 1500 mg / kg de peso corporal de KGAJOS, mientras que 500 mg / kg de peso corporal no fue efectivo. La eficacia observada de KGAJOS confirmó las afirmaciones tradicionales y el uso de esta formulación en condiciones asociadas con la cognición y la memoria.
Malva sylvestris, Punica granatum, Amygdalus communis, Arnebia euchroma and Scrophularia deserti are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, burn, and wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethanol extracts of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers, A. communis leaves, A. euchroma roots and S. deserti stems were used to evaluate the burn healing activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Burns were induced in Wistar rats divided into nine groups as following; Group-I: normal rats were treated with simple ointment base (control), Group-II: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control), Groups-III and -VII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals), Groups VIII: diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts, Group-IX: diabetic rats received the standard drug (Silver Sulfadiazine). The efficacy of treatments was evaluated based on wound area, epithelialization time and histopathological characteristics. Wound contraction showed that there is high significant difference between the different groups (p<0.001). At the 18th day, A. euchroma, S. deserti, A. communis and mixed extract ointment treated groups healed 80-90%. At the 9th and 18th days the experiment, the best results were obtained with A. communis and standard drug, when compared to the other groups as well as to the controls. It may be concluded that almond leaves (sweet and bitter) formulated in the simple ointment base is effective in the treatment of burns and thus supports its traditional use.
Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Acanthaceae, é a fonte do medicamento ayurvédico "Kokilaaksha", e da droga Unani, Talimakhana. As sementes têm de sabor acre e amargas, são afrodisíacas, tônicas, calmantes, e usadas para doenças do sangue. A planta é conhecida por possuir propriedades antitumorais, hipoglicêmica, afrodisíaca, anti-bacteriana, na eliminação de radicais livres e peroxidação lipídica, atividade hepatoprotetora e hematopoiéticas. Ele contém lupeol, estigmasterol, butelina, ácidos graxos e alcaloides. Este trabalho apresenta estudos químicos, farmacológicos e outros aspectos importantes da Talimakhana.
Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Acanthaceae, is a source of the ayurvedic drug, 'Kokilaaksha' and the Unani drug, Talimakhana. The seeds are acrid, bitter, aphrodisiac, tonic, sedative, used for diseases of the blood. The plant is known to possess antitumor, hypoglycemic, aphrodisiac, antibacterial, free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation, hepatoprotective and haematopoietic activity. It contains lupeol, stigmasterol, butelin, fatty acids, and alkaloids. The present review article is focused on phytochemical, pharmacological and other important aspects of Talimakhana.
Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times as medicines for the treatment of various diseases. Especially in countries like India many of herbal drugs and formulations are used in different practices of treatment like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. It is estimated that about 25% of all modern medicines are directly or indirectly derived from plants sources. The contribution of developing countries in global herbal business is very poor due to lack of quality control and standardization measures. There is lack of common standards and appropriate methods for evaluating Traditional Medicine to ensure the safety, efficacy and quality control. This indicates the importance and necessity to develop a standard operational procedure for the standardization of herbal drugs and formulations. Benchmarking the evaluation protocols including both quality control and quality assurance of herbal drugs would play a major role in providing highly reliable and effective herbals drugs and to attract international trade, thus generating revenue. The article highlights various problems being faced by developing countries and suggests a unique approach for the preparation of SOP/guidelines for the standardization of all herbal based formulations, also there is a need for systematic clinical trials of traditional plant based medicines to enhance global acceptance